Author Topic: How Christ said the First Mass: Rev. James Meagher, D.D.  (Read 262 times)

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How Christ said the First Mass: Rev. James Meagher, D.D.
« on: February 11, 2020, 10:51:01 AM »
Truly Excellent Book. Highly Recommended Reading. Great for Lent.

"CONTENTS.

THE FIRST PART : HOW THE MASS WAS FORETOLD IN THE TEMPLE.

I. THE SIGNS, SYMBOLS AND CEREMONIES OE THE MASS IN THE TEMPLE.

How God foretold the crucifixion and the Mass to Adam and his children in types, images and emblems. The drama of redemption in the Temple ceremonial. God the Architect of the tabernacle. The Holy of Holies typified heaven, the Holies the church building, the Courts the Jewish Church. The Ark of the Covenant. The cup of manna foretold the ciborium with the Host on our altar. History of the manna. The gold statues of Cherubim gave rise to the statuary of our churches. The Holies the model of our sanctuary. The altar of incense typified our altar, the table of proposition bread our credence table. The gold candlestick foretold Christ enlightening the world ; the
Easter candle. The bishop and priest teaching truth from the pulpit. The sacrificial altar foretold Calvary. Origin of sacrifice. Adam's sixty-three children. Cain, typifying the Jews, killed Abel, type of Christ. What is a sacrifice? The Passover developed into tabernacle worship.

How the sacrifices were offered with a cross in Temple. Jews did not understand the reason of sacrifice. Names of Persons of the Trinity in Old Testament. How God spoke through the Shekina to the prophets. Remarkable evidence from Jewish writers. Meanings of Elohim, Jehovah, Jesus Christ, Shekina, Yaqara, Eloi, etc 15-46.

II. HOW THE MYSTERIES OF THE MASS WERE UNVEILED IN THE TEMPLE.

How the ceremonial of Day of Atonement foretold Christ entering heaven. The Talrauds, their history, divisions and contents. A Papal decree saved the Talmuds from destruction. Jewish traditions and peculiar ideas. The high priest seven days separated from his wife foretold an unmarried clergy. Three arks, three crowns. How the high priest prepared. Origin of holy water. How '' lots " were drawn to choose the priests. Candles lighted, incense offered. Temple chambers. The Supreme Court administered an oath to the high priest lest he might be an infidel. Image of baptism. -Avarice of the priests. The second "lot." Moses on Nebo and tombs of the patriarchs at Hebron.

Ceremonies beginning the services at daybreak. Tlie high priest's bath. His vestments and what they cost. The pontiff with his assistant priest and twelve rninisters. Names of persons who made gold utensils for Temple. How the five services began. How the bullock was slain after confession of sins placed on him. Names of avaricious families denounced in Temple prayers. The goat for Jehovah and the one for Azazael drawn by lot. The crimson cloth became white by a miracle, but did not after Christ's death. A layman killed all the animals tliis day, and a pagan led the scapegoat to death, for the pagan layman Pilate condemned Christ.

The ceremonial described. The censer and incense same as used in church to-day. The high priest once became defiled. How he put the incense in the censer. How he entered behind the two veils. Ceremonial in the Holy of Holies. How he sprinkled the blood. Mystic meanings foretelling Christ in heaven. How he offered incense on the altar in the Holies typifying the Mass. The goat for the Eternal Father. The scapegoat with the sins of Israel on him on the high platform foretelling Christ before Pilate. How the scapegoat was led out into the country by a pagan amid shouts and curses of great crowds as they  mocked Christ. How he was pushed off the high rock  Tsuk, and killed. How the pagan returned. Morning services image of a Pontifical High Mass. The reading of the Law imaging the reading of Epistle and Gospel. The change of vestments. St. Paul's explanation of the Day of Atonement. John's vision of the Liturgy and services of the Heavenly Church. The eternal throne. How the Mass on earth is offered in heaven. The four Evangelists. The sealed book. The Lamb of God. The vast multitudes adoring God in heaven, etc 47-85.

III. THE BREAD, W^INE, WATER, OIL AND INCENSE IN THE TEMPLE.

Reasons why God chose bread. History of wheat. How the altar breads for Passover and Temple were made. Why the celebrant at Mass breaks the Host. Why unfermented bread is used at Mass. The Hebrew flour-mill and oven.

Way of making fermented and unfermented bread. The ceremonies of placing the bread and wine in the Temple Holies on the credence table. How the bread and wine foretelling tlie Mass were honored in the Temple. The sign of the cross. How the removed bread was eaten and the wine drank. History of wine. How Noe blesssed the white races. Palestine wine and how it was made. " Dry " and " sweet " wines. A famous festival. Vessels in which wine was kept. The Lord's great Chalice. Why wine is mixed with water at Mass. The Temple ceremony in honor of water. The Hebrew maidens' dance after the wine was made, during which men chose their wives.

Christ a Temple Priest and Prince of David's family.

Origin of the Holy Oils used in the Church. Composition of the holy oil Moses made. Myrrh, cinnamon, cassia, balm, storax and plants which produce them. Anointing the sick in the Old Testament. How the high priest and priest were ordained in the Temple, and anointed on head and hands. History of Mary Magdalen, and why she anointed Christ. Priest, Rabbi, king, judge and officials anointed before Christ. Blessing the holy oils on Holy Thursday. Composition of the incense used in the Temple. Stacte, onycha, calamus, galbanum, frankincense.

Meaning of burning incense. How the incense was offered in the Holies as now at a high Mass. Graphic scene in the Holies when Zachary incensed the gold altar. Gabriel told him John the Baptist would be born. Why he did not believe the angel's words. History of the Baptist. Origin of the ceremony of incensing the clergy during a high Mass. Origin of the tonsure, etc 86-123

THE SECOND PART : HOW THE MASS WAS FORETOLD IN THE PASSOVER.

IV. THE HISTORY OP THE HEBREW PASSOVER.

Meaning of the word Passover. The great Jewish Easter feast. The anniversary of their delivery from Egyptian slavery. How God developed the patriarchal feast into the Hebrew Passover. The Hebrews delivered to foretell how mankind would be delivered from the demon's slavery.

The minute directions God gave Moses. The Egyptian Passover, and the Feast of Unleaven Bread foretelling the crucifixion and the Mass. The lamb. The time, place and ceremonies of the sacrifice. The blood on the door jambs typified the cross. Egyptian, perpetual, first and second Passovers. The times they sacrificed the Passover during Hebrew history. How the lamb foretold Christ. Origin of the Christian Easter. How they crucified the lamb.

How God enlarged the Passover into the tabernacle and Temple and bread and wine into the Feast of Unleaven Bread. Mystic meanings of the foods at Passover. Rejection of the Jewish sacrifices. Joseph us on the Passover.

A description of the Passover as held to-day by the Samaritans. The Passover celebrated by thirteen Jews on Sion, which the writer attended, etc 124-151

V. THE TALMUD ON THE LAST SUPPER OR PASSOVER.

St. Paul explains the meanings of Passover preparations. The Pesachim Tract of the Talmud. Why the Jews search for leaven bread with a candle at twilight on eve of Passover. The examen of conscience, confession, and preparation for Communion foretold before Christ. The ceremony of the searcli for leaven bread. Who were obliged and who exempt. The candle signified Christ. The light imaged the Holy Ghost rousing the sinner to repentance before Easter confession. The two cakes of proposition bread exposed in the Temple. The two cows plowing on Olivet.

All leaven bread burned at noon the day before Passover. Rites which foretold Communion must not be received in mortal sin. How they cleaned houses and dishes in days of Christ. House-cleaning in our day before Passover to typify the cleansing of conscience before Easter Communion. How the Pharisees of our day plant the Passover wheat, make the flour, draw the water, and make the breads. Tlie Garmo family had a monopoly of making the bread for the Temple. The " Water of Precept " tlie man was bringing to the Cenacle when Peter and John met him. How the women made the breads for Passover in the days of Christ. How they got the gold to cover the Temple. Avarice of the priests. What king Hezekiah did. Why we fast before Communion. Jewish mourning.

Origin of the black vestments. Work forbiden before Passover. Origin of offerings to the Church. How the lamb was sacrificed in Temple. The blood put on the altar horns. The skin taken off. The three divisions, or " bands." Why Herod Agrippa ordered the kidneys counted. Cost of Temple chalices. How the lamb was crucified and roasted on his cross. Who could sacrifice the lamb. Why a bone was not broken and the remains removed after the supper. How the lamb was eaten. The Masses said for others, Communion for the sick foretold. The second Passover. Easter duty prefigured. The synagogue services before the supper. Evening prayers.

The seven benedictions. The master's chalice. The reclining position. Rules relating to bread and wine and different foods. The four Passover chalices of wine. How the Psalms were written. The Holy Spirit known to the Hebrews. Tlie chalice the Lord used foretold. Graphic description of Passover and Day of Atonement by Marcus Ambivius, Roman procurator over Judea before Pilate, etc 1 52-197.

VI. THE FEAST OF UNLEAVEN BREAD AT THE PASSOVER.

Why the feast lasted for a week. Why they asked Pilate to deliver Barabbas in place of Christ. Ceremony of the Omer " first fruits " foretelling Christ's arrest. The minor feasts during Passover week. Why the Jews would not enter Pilate's hall. How the victims were sacrificed on Passover week. The evening banquet. The bath and washing the feet images of baptism. The architriclinus. The tables. Positions of guests. When the couch was introduced. Why they washed their hands. Origin of prayers before meals. Why the bread and wine are raised up and offered to God during Mass. Dress of guests at feasts. Ancient jewehy. Origin of incensing the clergy  during High Mass. " Crumbs which fell from the table." Prayers after meals. Origin of the Agapae " love feasts " St. Paul on abuses at, etc 153-216.

THE THIRD PART : HOW THE MASS WAS FORETOLD IN THE CENACLE.

VII. THE HISTORY OP MELCHISEDECH, SION AND THE CENACLE.

Who was Melchisedech ? Different opinions. Meaning of the word. Records relating to him. Jews and Orientals say he was Sem, Noe's eldest son. Nimrod author of paganism. Jewish traditions relating to Adam. Why Calvary was called Golgotha. Melchisedech founds Jerusalem. Why Abraham was called out of Ur, Why Abraham gave tithes to Melchisedech. History of Sion, David's city. The treasures David gathered to build the Temple.

Why Herod built the Cenacle. Why relics of the Saints are placed in the altar stone. Why the dead are buried under churches. Christ's family owned the Cenacle. The first cathedral of the world. St. James' Liturgy in the Cenacle. History of the Cenacle after Christ. Sion at the present time and its inhabitants. Description of the room where Christ said the First Mass, etc 238-317.

VIII. THE SYNAGOGUE SERVICES IN THE CENACLE.


Origin of the synagogue. Meaning of the name. Synagogues of Palestine in days of Christ. Synagogue building copied from Temple gave rise to porch, nave and sanctuary of church building. Origin of poor-boxes, and holy water fonts. Why altar is in east end of church. Why women cover head in church. Origin of the pulpit.

The language of people of Judea at the time of Christ. Why Mass is said in dead languages. Origin of the sanctuary lamp and seats for clergy. The famous Alexandrian synagogue. The two Messiahs Jews believed in. The model of the altar railing and of the Easter candle. Where the Gospel writers found Christ's genealogies and origin of baptism and marriage records. The Rabbi and meaning of name. Why Christ did not begin to preach till he was thirty. Christ called a Rabbi in the Gospels. Why a priest is called "Father." Origin of Rev., Very Rev., and Rt. Rev.

How Christ with his followers wandered over Judea. How the Rabbis taught their followers. Jesus as a Rabbi. The presbyters or elders in the synagogue. Origin of Cathedral Chapter. The archisynagogos. Origin of the diocese and parish. The apostles of the Jewish Church before Christ. Why the apos-ties chose seven deacons. The education of a Rabbi in Christ's day. The office of porter in the Jewish Church.

Church collections and collectors came from the synagogue of days of Christ. How the order of exorcists began. Minor orders prefigured. Church music. How the Psalms were sung in Temple and synagogue. Musical instruments. Origin of the church choir. Singing with music in Temple and synagogue. The two choirs. Origin of Church music. The ark in Temple and synagogue.

How Moses wrote the five first Books of the Old Testament. The Scroll of the Law. How the Scriptures were read in Christ's day. "Why the congregation sits while the Epistle is read at Mass. How the Hebrews read parts of Bible relating to the feast. The custom continued in the Church. The men who read tlie Scriptures. Why we kiss the Gospel after reading it. Why seven ministers attend the bishop when he pontificates. Details of reading the Bible in the ancient synagogue. How Christ read in the synagogue. Why the priest holds out his hands at Mass. Prayers for the dead in the days of Christ. Testimony of non-Catholics. Jewish belief in purgatory.

Jewish bequests for prayers for the repose of their souls. Origin of the seventh day, " month's mind," and anniversary of death. Jewish prayers to the Saints in heaven. Kaddish prayers for repose of souls of the dead. A New York street scene. Jewish prayers for repose of souls of friends killed in Russia. " God have mercy on their souls."

The origin of the bridal Mass. Blessing of virgin but not of widow in the Hebrew Church, with beginnings of marriage customs. Mass in the apostolic age. How the apostles founded dioceses, and names of some bishops they consecrated in Syria, etc 218-284.

IX. THE VESTMENTS CHRIST AND THE APOSTLES USED IN THE CENACLE.

Why the clergy wear vestments during Church services. Priests in all ages wore vestments offering sacrifice. God revealed material, form and colors of vestments. Why they are of linen and silk. Origin of gold cloth. The four vestments of priest, and eight of high priest in Temple. The linen drawers, girdle, cassock, and miter. Origin of the bishop's rochet. The rational, Urim and Timmmim. Whythe bishop wears so many vestments. Description of the Phylacteries. Wliy the apostles wore a gold band on the brow. Why the Popes forbade the Phylacteries. History of the sandal and shoe. Why the bishop puts on shoes before pontificating. Why God ordered Temple priests to wear drawers. Origin of the cassock and its different colors. Origin of the alb and of the frock-coat. Why amice and cincture are worn. The sash and waist-band.

The tunic. Why the bishop wears two tunics. How the prophet's mantle, worn by Christ, became the chasuble and cope. The iinatian or chasuble Christ wore at the Last Supper. Origin of embroideries on Church vestments. Why the altar boys and ministers hold up the chasuble.

Origin and history of the stole and its fringes. How Jews made the fringes on the stole. Origin of articles of devotion. Why the amice is first put on the head before falling on the shoulders. How Christ was confirmed in the Temple in his twelfth year. Origin of the pallium and how it was worn. Christ wearing the pallium. The broach for cope. Why Christ wore the purple garments of a bishop. Origin of the turban which developed into the miter and kingly crown. Why the bishop removes the miter before going up to the altar. Garments worn in English courts.

Why the clergy cover the head in church. Origin of the episcopal ring, gloves and crosier. St. Augustine explains the mystery of the prophet's staff. The apostles carried the staff. Did Christ use a crosier ? 285-316

THE FOURTH PART : HOW CHRIST AND THE APOSTLES SAID THE FIRST MASS.

X. HOW CHIRST AND THE APOSTLES PREPARED FOR THE FIRST MASS.

The exact date of the Last Supper. The preparations for the Passover. Who were obliged to go to the Temple ?

About three millions went to Jerusalem for the feast. Why the lamb was chosen the tenth of the month. The Grotto where Christ hid at night. How they prepared the lamb.

The discounts the money-changers gave the priests. Why Christ and the apostles fasted before the Passover. Why we fast before Communion. The Paraceve, " the Preparation." Easter eve in the Temple. What was forbidden before Passover. How the Jews confessed their sins in the Temple. Why we strike our breasts at the General Confes-sion at Mass. Graphic scenes in the Temple eve of Pass-  over, with the prayers they said. Origin of the Litanies.

How the high priest said the words of absolution. Did Christ absolve the apostles ? The power of forgiving sins. How the early Christians confessed their sins. Why the confessional is called a tribunal. Origin of confession on Holy Saturday. How Christ and his apostles came to the Temple Thursday afternoon. The Pilgrims' Psalms.

Scenes in the Temple filled with Jews from all nations. The disputes about Jesus of Nazareth. The Levites with gold and silver crosiers. Christ carrying the lamb with the apostles enters the Priests' Court. How the lamb was prepared for sacrifice. Sins of the "band" of Jews placed on the lamb. The victim tied and offered in form of a cross.

The Levite choir of 500 members, and the priests' choir of same number. How all Temple worshipers faced Calvary. How the lamb was sacrificed. Gold and silver chalices catch the blood, pass it in form of cross and mark the horns of altar with bloody cross. How they sang the Psalms in the Temple. How Christ left the Temple carrying the body of the lamb. The Church foretold in Sion's glories. "Whither wilt thou that we prepare" for the Passover? The great bridge leading from Temple to Sion.

Peter and John met the man carrying the " Water of Precept " for Passover. Why the Cenacle was given to Christ for the First Mass. Origin of " Peace be with you," (Pax vobis) and " The Lord be with you," (Dominus vobiscum.)

Christ comes to the Cenacle. How they crucified the lamb without breaking a bone, and how they roasted him restng on his cross. How they made the breads for the First Mass. The chaseroth, couches, cruets of wine and water, eggs, meats, foods. How the Cenacle was decorated. Origin of the the six beeswax candles at High Mass. Prayers for the repose of the souls of the dead. A peculiar Hebrew idea regarding Adam. The Passover bath. "The two vespers." etc 317-346

XI. THE CEREMONIES AND PRAYERS OF THE FIRST MASS TO THE END OF THE PREFACE.

The Temple porter sounds the trumpet. Origin of the vesper service. How they blew the trumpet in Temple. Christ with his followers enter the Cenacle. The prayer they said while coming through the door. Origin of the order of Church processionals. Temple and synagogue cere-monial in the Cenacle. Christ pontificated as Bishop. The first High Mass. A bishop in every church in the early  ages. The prophet foretold the First Mass. Meaning of his Hebrew words. The sanctuary of the Cenacle.

Origin of the steps leading up to the altar railing. The Jewish Church Christ's spouse. Origin of the seven ministers of a Pontifical High Mass. Christ as the Rabbi. Origin of the prayers said when vesting. The Messiah vesting for the Last Supper foretold. Congregational singing at the Passover. A holy dance. The Lord's purple cassock.

How they began the Mass. The opening prayers. They strike the breast. Origin of the General Confession at Mass. How they incensed the ark inclosing the Books of the Old Testament. How Christ held out his hands at the Mass.

Prayers of deep devotion. The eighteen Benedictions. Prayers for the coming of the Messiah. Why the deacon places the Gospels on the altar and receives the celebrant's blessing. Origin of the ceremonies before reading the Epistle and Gospel. How the Scriptures were read in the Hebrew Church. The Megillah or Exodus on the Passover. Christ's sermon in the synagogue on the Real Presence.

The Creed of the Jewish Church in days of Christ. Why the deacon spreads the corporal on the altar during the Creed. How the crucified lamb was placed on the table. The Shema. Origin of the Preface andSanctus. Why the bishop goes from his throne up to the altar at the Offertory attended by his ministers. Why the disciples left the Lord and his apostles alone in the Cenacle to continue the Mass, etc 347-378

XII. THE PRAYERS AND CEREMONIES OF THE CANON OF THE FIRST MASS.

Why the bishop lays by his crosier and miter before going up to the altar. How the tables were arranged at the Last Supper. The Triclinium, " Tiiree Beds." Origin of the assistant priest, deacon and siibdeacon. Peter, James and John. What they represented in the Church. Why they said Mass facing the people in the early Church. Origin of the clergy seats in our sanctuary. How John could lay his head on Jesus' breast. Why Clirist used the words " This is my Body." The lamb eaten in the Old Law prophesied " the Lamb of God " in tlie New. Communion image of the Incarnation. Mystic and prophetic meanings of tlie Pass- over. The great Chalice Christ used. The paten with the three altar breads. Origin of the credence table and cruets of wine and water. Why the ministers put wine and water in the chalice for the celebrant at Mass. Origin of the Canon, why it is said in a low voice. The Passover Seder and meanings of its sections.


Why the clergy say the Mass with the bishop while being ordained. Why the celebrant leans over the altar table beginning the Canon and saying the words of Consecration. Why the Gospels do not give the details of the Last Supper. The Ritual of the Last Supper the foundation of the Church Liturgies. Prayers at the first chalice of wine. Whj^ the celebrant washes his hands at  Mass. The parsley. The " Bread of affliction." Tlie ques- tions John asked, and the replies. The history of Abraham.

The delivery of the Hebrews from Egyptian slavery at Passover imaged the delivery of the world from demonic slavery. How the Divine Son delivered the Hebrews.

The plagues on Egypt. The paschal lamb foretelling the crucifixion, and the bread and wine prophetic of the Mass. The Little Hallel. The bitter herbs. Who was Hillel ? Judas' treason foretold. The Real Presence in the Eucharist. End of the first Supper, thanksgiving prayers. The washing of the feet. Christ consecrates the apostles bishops. The ordination rite he followed. How the high priest, priest, Rabbi, king and judge were ordained and consecrated. Why three bishops consecrate a bishop.

Origin of consecrating the holy oils on Thursday. Tl\e first bishops of the Clmrch. How bishop and prest bind Christ. The betrayal.Warnings against pride and vanity. The three orders essential to the Church. Origin of the religious orders. How the table was set for the feast of unleaven bread. The rite Christ followed when he gave Communion. Why the bread and wine are raised, lowered  and offered with a cross at Mass. Why the deacon touches paten and chalice. How the sacrifices were off eredin the Temple. Why the celebrant spread his hands over the bread and wine. How the Aphikoman Christ consecrated was hidden at the Last Supper. Peter as assistant priest and John as subdeacon, and what they represented. Why the subdeacon holds up the paten before his eyes at high
 Mass. How Christ incensed the bread and wine. Origin of incensing the clergy at a high Mass. Beautiful prayers  of the Last Supper Liturgy. The Messiah. Elijah to prepare for him. The cup of wine on the doorstep.

Prayers to the Saints of the Old Testament. Origin of prayers for our friends. The Little Hallel. How Christ and the apostles sang the Psalms. The Hosanna, with origin of this word. Where the bread and wine rested before the Lord. The Eucha ist at the Last Supper foretold. The ceremony be- fore the Consecration. How Christ consecrated the Aphi-koman. The words of Consecration according to Peter's Liturgy. The chalices in the early Church. "The mys- tery of faith." Each apostle wanted to be the head of the Church. The bishop's throne foretold. Tlie prayer for Peter. The sacred Hymn they sang. The prayers after Com-munion. Two beautiful Canticles, Judas remained till the end of tlie Supper. How his crime was foretold in the name of his birthplace. The betrayal again foretold. Why Christ gave Judas the "sop" of love and friendship. Judas was nephew of Joseph Caiphas the high priest. Tlie sermon in the Cenacle, etc 379-434.

Worldly people look with wonder at the Mass, and often say : " What is the meaning of this form of divine worship ? Where did these ceremonies come from ? Why- are candles lighted during daytime ? Why do the priests wear such peculiar robes ? Why don't they say the serv- ice in a language the people can understand ? "

The Catholic sometimes says to himself : " The Mass came from the Last Supper. But did Christ or the  apostles say Mass as priest or bishop of our time ? Did Christ that night follow any form of worship ? If he did, where is it found ? From ancient days the Church used the Ordinary of the Mass, but we do not know its origin."

Many questions rise in people's minds to which they find no answer. A common opinion holds that Christ said the First Mass at the Last Supper according to a short form of blessing and prayer, then consecrated the bread and ^vine, gave the apostles Communion, and preached the sermon John's Gospel gives. When the apostles said Mass, they recited some Psalms, read the Scriptures, preached a sermon, consecrated the bread and wine, recited the Lord's Prayer and then gave Communion. In the apostolic age the saints added other prayers and ceremonies. Afterwards Popes and councils still more developed the rites, composed new prayers, and  that during the Middle Ages the Mass grew and expanded into the elaborate Liturgy and Ceremonial of our day.

But these opinions are wrong. From the beginning the Mass was said according to a long Liturgy and with ceremonies differing little from those of our time. No substantial addition was made after the apostolic age — what the early Popes did was of minor importance revis- ions and corrections. Little addition was made to the Ordinary of the Mass handed down from the days of Peter, founder of our Latin Liturgy. 

No pagan ceremony ever formed a part of the Mass. Through holy men of the Old Testament, God Himself revealed the forms, rites and ceremonies of divine wor- ship, and these were all combined and summed up in the Last Supper. But what was this Supper? The four Gospels mention the feast, but do not enter into the mat- ter. The Bible, Hebrew writers, and histories of that time tell us that the night He was betrayed the Lord held with His apostles the feast the Hebrews called the Pass-over, mentioned a hundred and seventeen times in Holy Writ as the Pascha, Phase, Azyme, Unleaven Bread, etc.

Every Jew from his youth celebrated the feast each Easter ; even Heathens could have learned its history and meanings, and the Gospel writers did not think it seemly to fill their writings with its details. They mention only words, acts and incidents of the Last Supper, which did not properly belong to the Passover.

Round the lamb foretelling the crucifixion, and the bread and wine prophetic of the Mass, from times immemorial, the Holy Spirit, by and through the prophets, had gathered a long series of ceremonies and numerous objects recalling the history of God's people. The consecration of the bread and wine changed these shadowy forms, emblems, types and sacramentals of the Hebrew religion into the sub- stance they had so wonderfully foretold. The apostles therefore saw nothing new or strange when Christ changed the ancient Passover into the Mass.

We will begin with the religion of the patriarchs, de- scribe the tabernacle, the Temple, their ceremonial, give the history of the Passover, of the Feast of Unleaven Bread, and show how the Mass was foretold in the He- brew religion. Then we will pass to the Cenacle wherein the Lord held the Passover, describe the Synagogue serv- ices they carried out before the Supper, the vestments  they used that night, and give a translation of the Form of Prayer or Liturgy of the First Mass. This Passover service of the Last Supper was the foundation of the Liturgies of the Mass.

We will show that the ceremonies seen to-day in the Mass came down from the Hebrew rites God established through Moses and the great men of the Old Testament. We will cite many Jewish and non-Catholic writers who will not be suspected of favoring the Church. We cannot quote all without filling the work Avith notes. Many trans-lations from the Talmuds will show that the lamb, as a type of Christ, was sacrificed, during these long ages of waiting, for the sins of the offerers, for their friends, the sick, the absent, and the dead as to-day He is offered in the Mass.

No work could be found in any language treating in a complete way the Last Supper, and the writer had to rely on his own resources regarding matter and form. A subject so vast was beset with many difficulties, for it is hard to lay before the reader minute details, descriptions and scenes of a world which passed away two thousand years ago.

The writer studied the Jewish authors of ancient and modern times, was present during synagogue services in different cities of the world, consulted learned Rabbis, searched libraries, read the lives of Christ by famous authors, lived for weeks in Jerusalem, talked with Palestine Jews, was present while they held the Passover on Sion, and the result of his investigations are laid before the public. We hope that it will clear up many questions the laity ask regarding the origin of the Mass and its ceremonies.

We do not hold that every statement is absolutely exact, but is about as correct as we can reproduce the First Mass. " Small men " may find some things to crit- icise, they would have written in a different way, but we hope our humble efforts will draw sincere human hearts nearer in love to their Saviour when they see how He established the great Christian Sacrifice.
« Last Edit: February 11, 2020, 11:16:51 AM by Xavier »
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Re: How Christ said the First Mass: Rev. James Meagher, D.D.
« Reply #1 on: February 12, 2020, 08:33:52 AM »
THE FIRST PART.
HOW THE MASS WAS FORETOLD IN THE TEMPLE.
I.—THE SIGNS, SYMBOLS, AND CEREMONIES OP THE MASS IN THE TEMPLE.

The Catholic Church, its divisions of porch, nave, and sanctuary, its ornaments, vestments, and ceremonial, came from the Jewish Temple and the synagogue of the time of Christ. The Passover service was modeled on the Tem ple worship. Thus the Last Supper combined in one ceremonial the patriarchal worship, the tabernacle, the Temple, the synagogue, all united in one feast the Hebrews called the Passover, which Christ fulfilled and changed into the Mass. Let us therefore see first the Temple, its divisions, its rites, its ceremonies, and its sacramentals, that we may better understand the cere monies Christ followed when he said the first Mass. To teach truth by visible objects is an instinct of our nature. Words, spoken or printed, represent ideas. But we love to show our thoughts by actions. Even animals make-believe a fight in play ; with her doll the girl images her motherly instinct ; boys amuse themselves with toys ;men speak in figure, type, parable ; tone of voice, shade word meanings, show hate, anger, fear or sorrow, and smile, tear, and sob tell our feelings. We love to see the actor in the play represent, not him self but a celebrated personage. Therefore, before the dawn of history, the theater was found in civilized lands, where on its stage tragedy, comedy, and history were imaged before delighted audiences.

God made use of these representative instincts through which to foretell the future Tragedy of Calvary, to prophesy the Last Supper and the Mass. This was the best way to teach mankind, in that age when Adam's children were ignorant, when words were few, when language was hardly formed, when ideas were crude, when books were unknown, when few could read or write.

From the gates of Eden the Redeemer was revealed, the woman's Seed who was to come and conquer the serpentdemon who had enslaved mankind. But how was the revelation to be handed down in that age of the childhood of our race ? God made use of this representative instinct of our nature, and told the life of the foretold Christ in the ceremonial of sacrifice, in the rites of the tabernacle, and in the ceremonies of the Temple. We will, therefore, first see the Temple, its ceremonies, for these we will later find in the Last Supper.

To Jew and unbeliever the Temple has ever been a riddle, and they have written countless books to explain its mysteries. The Catholic Church alone has the key which unlocks the mysteries of that maze of vast bewildering building, with its Holy of Holies, Holies, Priests' Court, Court of Israel, Women's Court, Chel, Choi, Cloisters, some roofed, others open to the sky, with various chambers, each at the time of Christ having its own proper use.

The wonderful building, with its rites and ceremonies, was a divine poem written by God to reveal present, past and future. In the past, the Jew saw God his Creator, mankind in original innocence, the Temptation and the Fall, the condemnation on our race, woman's deeper wound, the promise of the woman's Seed, sinners drowned when the world was baptized by the flood, the call of Abraham, the blessing on his race, the revelation given the Hebrews, their delivery from Egyptian slavery, the manna their food for forty years, their miraculous preservation and struggles, the whole world plunged into darkest idolatry, the glory of their judges, and the splendors of David and Solomon. The Temple was the very heart and soul of the Jewish Church, in which alone Jehovah was then adored in days
of deepest paganism.

But beyond, deep into the future, the Temple story and worship carried their minds, down to the days of Christ, to his Last Supper, to his atrocious death, to the New Testament, to the Catholic Church with her Pontiff, her bishops, her priests, her sacraments and her millions of redeemed souls.' The Temple and its vast ceremonial formed a book within and without written by God's eternal hand, not in dead lifeless letters as man writes, but in warm, living signs, symbols, types and figures. Amid the multitudes of Temple emblems, let us take those relating to our subject, and read the lessons of this Divine Poem, this heavenly poetry, this drama of Calvary, transcendent above all others God its author here taught the future death of the only Begotten Son.'

The Holy of Holies closed by a veil represented heaven closed to mankind because of the sin of our first parents. The Holies with its glittering golden altar and walls fore told the church building especially our sanctuary with its altar on which now the Mass is offered. The Courts with the ministering priests, the sacrificed victims, pre figured the Jewish priests who later were to kill the Saviour. The words then of God's wonderful book had two meanings : one, what the objects showed in themselves ; this now alone the Jew can see ; and the other meant the God-Man, the Church, the Eucharistic Sacrifice, and this the Christian with his faith can see. Patriarch, prophet, the holy ones of Israel, filled with faith of the foretold Messiah saw this sacred drama of the future, and read between the lines and behind the objects the story of the redemption of mankind ; thus they walked in the faith, hope and love of Him who was to be born of their race. Thus the holy ones of old saved their souls.

Cenacle and church building were modeled after the Temple. We will therefore give a rapid glance over this great building, famed in all the earth, visited so often by the Lord, itself being copied from the tabernacle.
> S. Augustine, De civit. Dei, L. xvill. c. 48. ' S. Augustine, In Eptst. Joan, ad Parthos, Tracts 11, n. 111. •S. Thomas, Sum. Theo. 1. a, 2te 102 ; S. Augustlne, The Fathers, etc

The tabernacle God directed Moses to make while wandering in the vast deserts of Arabia, " the Sandy," leaving no permanent resting place, represented mankind in this world of trials tired, weary, wishing ever for something higher, better.' The Temple Solomon built to replace the tabernacle, permanently resting on Moriah "Jehovah provides," within the city of Jerusalem "Possession of Peace," was the emblem of heaven where in beatific vision our souls will rest in everlasting peace. " When it was building, it was built of stone hewed and made ready, so there was neither hammer, nor ax, nor any tool of iron heard in the house, when it was building " '

The Temple Solomon "the Peaceful" built imaged the Universal Church ' the Son of God, the " Prince of Peace," built, while the tabernacle represented the Hebrew religion. Whence the Hebrews alone built the tabernacle, but pagan Sidonians and Tyrenians aided Solomon to build the Temple, to foretell that pagan converts would help Christ and his apostles to build the Universal Church.

God revealed to Moses the model of the tabernacle, and the plans and specifications of the Temple came from heaven ; the Eternal Himself being its architect, for the Divine Son planned and founded the Catholic Church.

" And David gave to Solomon his son a description of the porch, and of the Temple, and of the treasuries, and of the upper floor, and of the inner chambers, and of the house for the mercy-seat. All these things, he said, came to me written by the hand of the Lord that I might understand the works of the pattern." * Sole Temple of the Lord of hosts, amid the thousand temples of pagan gods, resting on Moriah's top, within the sacred City " Vision of heavenly Jerusalem," terrace upon terrace towered the Temple at the time of Christ, dominating high over all the city, except Sion, a loftier hill, the latter emblematic of the Church and her Eucharistic Sacrifice.
1 8. Augustine, Enar. In Fsal. xiv., S. Thomas, Sum. 1, 2, q ; 1 O2. 4, ad 2, etc 1UI. Kings fr-7. S. Thomas. Sura. 11. 2. q : JOJ, * ad 2. See I. Far. xxii. xxvili. 19.
THE HOLY OF HOLIES. 19

Cedar-roofed and richly carved, enclosed by cloisters grandest ever built, its walls of white marble, the sacred fane dominated the city. Copied after the tabernacle of desert wanderings, the Temple was divided into four parts the Holy of Holies, the Holies, the Hebrew Courts and the Court of Gentiles each with its own symbolic and pro phetic meanings, this was the sacred sanctuary Christ called " His Father's House," '

The inner fane of the holy sanctuary, called by Jewish writers : " The Gold House," was seven stories high, and 150 feet square, but within and without was covered with plates of purest gold, bought with money received from the sale of millions of paschal lambs' skins. Each plate was a yard square and as thick as a twenty- five cent piece. Not only walls and sides were gold covered, but even the roof, and it bristled with gold spikes about four inches long, to prevent birds settling on and soiling. This " Golden House," was seven-storied, em blematic of the sacred number seven, the word in which the Gospels were later written, and the seven sacraments In the center was a room thirty feet square, the Holy of Holies its walls covered with gold plates, this was the resting-place of the Holy Ghost of tabernacle and first Temple. There, visible as a cloud by day, a fire at night, He spoke to Moses, to the prophets and revealed to them the Old Testament. They called him the Shekina" The Holy Presence." The Holy of Holies was closed by a great veil, sixty by thirty feet, so thick and heavy it took 300 priests to hang it." It was woven of seventy-two colored strands white, representing waters of baptism ; violet, emblematic of penance ; red, martyr's blood ; and green, youthful innocence. The closed Holy of Holies, dwelling-place of the Holy Spirit, represented heaven closed by Adam's sin to all the members of the seventy-two nations born of Noe's grandsons, except they pass through baptism, penance, martyrdom, or youthful innocence regained." Josephus and Jewish writers say the colors typified water, sky, fire and earth.' The colors are now seen in the Church vestments.

1 John ii. IS. ' Ederaheim, Sketches, p. 127. ' Sea S. Auguitine, De civitate Dei, L. xvL o. 8. n. 2 ; c. «. n. 2. Antiq. til. 7. 7.
20 THE ARK OF THE COVENANT.

Once a year, the Day of Atonement, the high priest, typifying Jesus Christ in his death and ascension, his hands dripping with hlood of victims he had sacrificed in the Priests' Court, emblematic of the Jewish Church which killed Christ, entered alone that secret place, holiest sanctuary of earth, and there sprinkled the blood to foretell Christ entering and opening heaven to man kind. In the center of the Holy of Holies of tabernacle and Solomon's Temple rested the ark of the covenant, sign of God's contract1 with the Hebrews. It was a box of sweetly smelling sitim wood, the acacia of Arabia, about three feet long, two wide and high, and covered within and without with plates of purest gold. The cover was edged around with a gold rim, forming the " Mercy Seat of God," the Shekina.' That ark was an emblem of Christ in heaven and on earth, in whom burned the Holy Ghost, with his fire of love moving him to die for the race.' In a gold cup, like a ciborium, was preserved some of the miraculous manna which fell from heaven during the forty years of the wanderings of the Hebrews through Arabia. It reminded them of the food with which the Lord had fed their fathers, and it foretold the Eucharist preserved in the ciborium on our altars with which Christ now feeds Christian souls.

Let us see the story of the manna, for one of the cakes of the bread of the Last Supper was named after it. During the desert wanderings, 15,000 pounds of manna a week fell from heaven to feed the Hebrews. One morning they found the ground covered with little grains like hoar-frost, and when they saw it the first time they exclaimed in Hebrew, "Manna?" "What is this?"

For forty years God fed them on this miraculous food, till they entered the Promised Land, to foretell the Eucharist nourishment of our souls during the wander ings of this life.
Every morning, except the Sabbath, the ground was found covered with manna, which had to be gathered be fore the heat of the sun corrupted it ; if a family gathered

1 S. Augustine De cMtate Del, liber x. 1. 'An explanation of the Shekina will be found towards the end of this chapter. 8ee S. Augustine, De genes ad litleram, It. 17, Enarratio in Psalm cxxxi ; Talmud, Yomah, 107.
THE MIRACULOUS MANNA. 21

more than wanted for food during the day it hecame offensive ; but the double portion found Friday morning for that day and Saturday did not corrupt. They made the manna into thin cakes1 like those of the Passover and of the Mass. The third cake Christ consecratedwas
called the Aphikoman " The heavenly manna." A gold ciborium filled with the miraculous manna was placed in the ark to remind them of the miracle, and down the ages it lasted unchanged till Solomon's Temple was destroyed; it was a type of the Eucharist reserved on our altars. The Orientals still gather a kind of manna, which has not the qualities of that of Scripture. It is not a food but a purgative medicine ; it does not fall all the year, but only from May to August ; it is found only in small quantities ; it keeps for a long time without corruption ; a double portion does not fall on Friday ; it does not suddenly cease as the miraculous manna did when the Hebrews entered Palestine, when they began to raise their own food. Burkhardt, who traveled extensively through Arabia in 1812, says " Manna in our day is found on the ground, leaves, etc., must be gathered mornings for the sun melts it, and it is found only during wet seasons, rarely in dry weather. Strained through a cloth, it is spread on bread like butter or honey, but it is never made into cakes like the Hebrew manna, and in leather bottles will keep for years."

The Arabian physician Avicenna says, " Mannais collected from the tarfa or tamarisk shrub Taniarix gattica, it is a dew which falls on stones and bushes, be comes thick like honey and can be hardened so as to be like grain."

In the ark was also the blooming rod of Aaron show ing forth his priesthood, and shadowing holy orders in the Church. It was a type of Christ's eternal Priesthood blossoming forth into bishop and priest of every age. Beside the rod lay the two stone tablets, having engraved on them the Ten Commandments, the foundations of law and order in every civilized land. Thus the manna was emblematic of food sustaining life ; the rod, priestly wisdom, and the two tables of the law faith and morals
Babyl. Talmud, Yomah, p. 115.
22 TEMPLE AND 6HURCH IMAGES OF HEAVEN.
belief and practice of the future religion of the Crucified. These were preserved to recall to the Hebrews the wisdom, power, and goodness of God leading them from Egyptian paganism, nourishing them in the desert, and preserving them in the Promised Land. Over the mercy-seat of God, above the ark, brooded the great gold images of the Cherubim " Holding fast," or "Those grasped." They represented the highest heavenly spirits, holding fast purest and highest truths streaming down into their minds from the Divine Son, as their wills grasp the Good of God the Holy Spirit.

They recalled to the Hebrew mind the Cherubims the Eternal placed at the gates of Paradise after the FalL " with flaming sword turning every way to keep the way of the tree of life." '

In ancient religions they come from Eden's gates, as winged female sphinx of Egypt, as composite creature forms of Persia, as winged bulls of Assyria and Baby lonia, as Chimera of Greece, as Gryphon of Assyria, as Griffins of Northmen, and as grotesque emblems of fable and heraldry. They are still seen on coins, in sculpture, and art.

There, between the gold wings of the cherubim, on the mercy-seat rested the Shekina, the visible Presence of the Holy Spirit, a cloud by day, a fire at night, who spoke to the prophets, and gave mankind the Old Testament. Why were these golden images placed in the Holy of Holies? To image the millions of supernal spirits ever adoring the Eternal in His heavenly sanctuary, and to foretell images of Christ, of his Mother, of angels and of saints in the sanctuary of our churches. No member of our race was then in heaven, for it was closed till Christ opened it to us, therefore no image of saint was there.

The custom of placing images, paintings and statues of Christ in the church comes down to us from the Apostles,' Temple and church are images of heaven, dwelling- place of God. " And they shall make me a sanctuary and I will dwell in the midst of them."' Here the word " dwell " is in the Hebrew " I will shekina." Israel's greatest prophet in vision saw the Lord on his high

1 Gen. ill. M. See S. Augustine's Question, in Exod. L. li. 2, cv. etc > St. Thomas, Sum. lii. q. 25, 8 ad 4. ' Exod. xxv. 8.
THE GOLDEN ALTAR TYPIFIED JESUS CHRIST. 23

eternal throne, his court of heavenly beings filled the celestial Temple, while the Seraphim " The Burning " with knowledge and love, forming two choirs, sang the tresagion, " Holy, Holy, Holy is the Lord God of hosts." '

The words formed a part of the synagogue service sang at the Last Supper, and is now a part of the Preface of the Mass. The beloved Apostle saw the four living creatures in apocalyptic vision ' who sing the same before the Eternal's throne. Next to and east of that Holy of Holies, most sacred fane of earth, was the Holies, Jews called " the Holy Place," typifying the future Universal Church, the Jew or unbeliever cannot see. Therefore it was closed by a great veil woven of white, green, red, and purple strands, behind which twice daily entered the priest chosen to offer incense on its altar, to prophesy Christ praying in his Church.' There were thirteen veils in the Temple they gave rise to the veils now covering the tabernacles of our churches, behind which, in the ciborium, dwells Jesus Christ under the veils or species of bread, as under the form of the Shekina, the Holy Spirit brooded over the mercy-seat in the Temple.

The Holies not only represented the Universal Church, but also the sanctuary of our Church. Three things in the Holies also typified, in a still more striking way, what the cup of manna, Aaron's rod, and the tables of the Ten Commandments represented in the Holy of Holies. In the middle of the Holies rose the altar of incense, which the Jews called the " Golden Altar," because it was made of pure solid gold, and to distinguish it from the great sacrificial altar outside in the midst of the Priests' Court. That gold altar was the image of Jesus Christ. At nine in the morning, and at three in the afternoon, the priest spread on it burning coals to image the burning Shekina in the inner sanctuary. On them he sprinkled incense, the ceremonial foretelling Christ, burning with fire of the Holy Ghost, offering the prayers of the Mass on our altars in our sanctuary by the ministry of his clergy. The altar in our Church is a type of Christ,

1 Isaias vL 1 to 4. "Apoc.iv.7. ' Apoc. viil. 3, 4.
24 THE PROPOSITION BREAD.

and for that reason the altar is incensed at solemn services, as was the golden altar of the Temple.1 No animal was sacrificed on that golden altar, to fore tell that in the Church, on our altar, Christ is not sacrificed in a violent, bloody or painful manner, but in the mystic ceremonial of the Mass. But on the Day of Atonement, the high priest reddened the four corners of that altar with the blood of the sacrifices, held out over it his hands dripping blood, to foretell the cross of Christ reddened with his blood, and to foreshadow that the sacrifice of Calvary and of the Mass are one and identical.'

At the north of the gold altar of the Holies, at your right, stood the gold table ' with the twelve loaves of proposition bread, which Jewish writers call the " Bread of the Face," and twelve flasks of wine. They represented the twelve tribes of Israel, God had fed with manna in the desert. They foretold the bread and wine resting on our credence table at a High Mass, changed into the body and blood of Christ, with which he now feeds the souls of the members of his Church Only Temple priests could eat this bread or drink this wine with the flesh, to prophesy that the clergy of the Church live on its revenues. In memory of these breads, in Greek, Russian, and Oriental Rites, they cut the bread for the Mass into twelve pieces in honor of the twelve Apostles, having one for John the Baptist, a large one for the Blessed Virgin, and a still larger piece for the Sacrifice.

Oriental Christians build their altar the same shape and size of the gold altar of incense in the Holies. They allow nothing to rest on it but the liturgical books, not even candles. Thus the Holies, with its altar in the middle, the credence table on your right, and the great candlestick on your left, foretold the altar, credence table, and Easter candlestick in our sanctuary. The candlestick of Herod's Temple at the time of Christ was of solid gold, weighed 100 pounds, and had been presented by Queen Helen of Adiabne of Assyria, a convert to Judaism. The middle shaft of the candlestick ended with a gold

1 S. Aug., Question in Exod. L. ll. Qu. cxxxili. et cxxxiv. ' For a description of the altar of incense, see Edersheim, Temple, 138, 1S4, 877 ; Migne, 8. Scripture;, 11, 169, 170, 1801 ; 6, 446, 447, etc. Migne, Cursus Comp.S. Scriptures, ii. 1800, vi. 805.
THE GREAT CANDELABRA. 25

cup, having at each side a straight row of three cups of the same shape and size, making seven lamps. The central lamp burning day and night bent towards the Holy of Holies. The others were always lighted from it, which, with striking ceremony, foretold that while Christ's life was taken, his Divinity lived, and that he was to rise from the tomb.1

This great solid gold candelabrum, purest metal offered to God alone, was six feet high, Christ's stature. It could not be cast, but was made by being beaten, to foretell the flageHation. Its seven lamps, Josephus says, typified the the seven planets, but they foretold the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost: wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, godliness and the fear of God poured out on Christ.' While the stone tables having the engraved Ten Commandments were within the ark and showed Christ resting in heaven after teaching mankind religion, the candlestick showed him " The light enlightening every man who cometh into the world," ' glorified in heaven, while his Church preaches the light of his Gospel. The lamps were lighted each morning and extinguished at night.'

The Rabbis wrote before the Incarnation, that the candles and lights of Temple and Passover, especially the great candlestick, with its seven lights, foretold the Messiah, who would come and kindle for them " The Great Light." They wrote that he was " The Lord our Righteousness," " The Branch," " The Comforter," " The Enlightener," " The Light of the nations," etc. For that reason, when presented in the Temple, Simeon took the Child-Christ in his arms, and filled with the Holy Spirit burst forth into the prophecy and poetry written in this candelabra.

Now thou dost dismiss thy servant, O Lord, according to thy word, in peace ; Because my eyes nave seen thy salvation, Which thou hast prepared, Before the face of all peoples, A Light to the revelation of the Gentiles, And the Glory of thy people Israel.'

Ligtatfoot, Works, II. 309. > Isalas il. 2, 8 ; Mlgne 2, 168-1018. John i. 9. Mlgne, Cursus Completus, S. Scripture ii. 188. Luke iL 29-32.
26 WHAT BECAME OF THE GREAT CANDELABRUM.

This was why John wrote : " And the Life was the Light of men, and the Light shineth in darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it." ' The Holies was em- blematic of this world with Christ burning with the fire of the Holy Ghost, filling men with the light of his teachings, enlightening souls with faith and heavenly truth.

It foretold the church building. In the center of the Holies was the gold altar from which twice a day rose the smoke of incense ascending before the Lord, as from our altar, resting in the center of our sanctuary, ascends the Liturgy and prayers of the Mass.

Each of the seven branches of the golden candlestick ended in an olive oil lamp with wicks of worn-out priestly vestments; about a wine-glass of oil was poured into each every day by a priest chosen by " lot " for the function ; the lamps were lighted from the central lamp turned toward the Holy of Holies ; thus it represented the Messiah the Christ Hebrew and Greek words meaning " The Anointed " by the Holy Ghost who was represented by the oil ; thus the candelabrum foretold God made man through the Spirit of God illuminating the world, enlightening men's minds by his teachings.

This is the meaning of numerous words and figures found in the Old Testament and Temple ceremonial. Many lamps of olive oil, hundreds of beeswax candles, burned during Temple worship, and before the Torah, " the Law," the first five books of the Old Testament, in Temple and synagogue hung an ever-burning lamp and this lamp and these candles have come down to us in the Church. What became of the golden candlestick? That of Solomon's Temple was carried away into Babylonia when the first Temple was destroyed and was never heard of more. That of the Temple of the time of Christ was carried away to Rome, after Titus took the city in the year A. D. 70, and was borne before the conqueror in his triumphal entry into the Eternal City." Its image is still seen on his triumphal arch, with the incense chests still standing in the upper part of the Roman Forum.

The candlestick was deposited in the Roman temple of

1 John i. 4-5. See Edersheim, Life of Christ, i. 198-200. ' Josephus Jewish Wars, VII, v. 5.
THE CANDELABRA IN THE CHURCH. 27

Peace. One writer says it was thrown into the Tiber from the Milivial bridge during Maxentius' flight from Constantine, but another account says it was carried by Genseric to Carthage in A. D. 455, recovered by Be- lisarius, brought to Constantinople in 633, and placed in a church, but it has never been heard of since. The great gold candlestick of tabernacle and Temple representing Christ is still seen in our churches ' in the Easter candlestick. It is lighted with long ceremony on Holy Saturday, and used during High Mass, till the Ascension, when it is quenched after the Gospel, to signify at the Ascension Christ finished his work of teaching the world religion.'

The candelabrum, bearing seven or more burning candles during our services, were copied from this famous Temple candlestick. The thirteen candles used while chanting the Tenebrae during Holy Week, are quenched as the Psalms are sung, while the highest is hidden behind the altar to signify the prophets the Hebrews killed, and the one hidden for a moment and brought forth represents Christ buried and risen from the dead. Each Jewish synagogue has many seven-branched candel abrum, which they light during the services to remind them of the great candlestick of the Temple. But they do not light the central one, burning only six lights.

It seems singular, for the central light foretold the Messiah in Temple ceremonial. The priest chosen each day trim med and lighted the great candlestick. The Jewish laity never entered the Holies only a priest, chosen day by day, burned the incense on its golden altar, prototype of the priest now offering in the Mass the prayer of Christ on our altar.' The candlestick lighting up the Holies, emblematic of Christ the Light of his Church also foretold the bishop, light of his diocese.' Therefore the Pontiff places his episcopal throne on your left, where the candlestick stood in the Temple Holies, and there he sits " a light to the revelation of the Gentiles," reflecting the light which shines on him from the Fisherman's Throne. The Son

1 See S. Augustine, Sermo id cereo Paschall ; Sermo 182 de Verb. Ap 1 ; Joan. 4, n. x ; Sermo 817. de S. Stephano, ix. ' Sec S. Aug. Sermo. 888 n. 1. * See Augustlne, Enar. in P.sal. cxxxviil. 15 in Psalm cix. n. 1. * See S Augustine, Sermo. 1, De cereo Pashall.
28 DAVID'S GIFT TO THE TEMPLE.

of God told John his beloved Apostle to write to the seven Churches of Asia, that if they did not do penance he would remove their candlesticks that is, their bishops. We have seen the sad state of these cities where now Moslem fanatics rule.

The priest is placed as a light to the congregation.' Where in the Holies the candlestick stood, on the side where now the Gospel is read in our churches, there rises the pulpit from whence is preached the sermon. Down from the Catholic Church, of which he is an officer, comes the bishop to his diocese, bringing with him all the lights and glories of the Universal Church. Down from the society of the priests of the diocese, comes the priest into the church bringing with him the Mass, Bible, sacraments, and wealth of doctrine. He is, in teaching and example, as a lamp for the people, a candlestick with the seven lamps of the Holy Ghost, with his seven-fold gifts of salvation for the members of the parish.

Ten gold candelabra, each with seven gold cups of olive oil, each forming a lamp, divided the Priests' Court from the Holies. They were united by gold chains, and they formed a railing for the sanctuary, like our sanctuary railing, to which they gave rise. These lamps were lighted on great Hebrew feasts. Thus stood the Temple at the time of Christ, which he so often visited, his " Father's house," where he so often worshiped when he came to the feasts of his people. Goldwalled within and without as well as roofed, every object of purest massive gold, adorned with religious objects,

it was a sacramental emblem of the foretold glories of the Catholic Church. The Temple Herod had spent forty-six years building was famed in all the earth for its worship, its holiness, its glories and its wealth. People of our day, when money-making has become a craze, when the whole object of this life is to get rich, find fault because they are asked to support religion, and grumble when they see our churches adorned with costly altars, statuary and works of art. Let them go back in thought to that time of dying David, who inspired of God prepared the means for his son Solomon to build the Temple, and they will find that he gave $19,349,260, be

1 See S. Augustine, Enar. lv. id Psalm ciil. Sermo lv. n. 2.
THE SACRIFICIAL ALTAR. 29

sides other treasures of almost equal value to erect a building which was but an image of one of our churches.1

Directly east of the Holies, the three Courts of the Priests, of Israel, and of the Women formed one great Court, divided as the names suggest. In the middle of the Priests' Court, now called the Es Sakhra "the Rock", where Abraham offered his son Isaac, rose the great sacrificial altar foretelling Calvary and its Victim the priests were to sacrifice that fatal Friday. To still more precisely typify Calvary, this altar was made of un hewn stones, built into four walls on the outside, the stones being held together by leaden bands, and the in terior filled with earth. The altar was fifteen feet high and forty-eight feet square, the exact dimensions of Calvary. It was in two terraces, the first forty-eight feet, the next thirty-six ; the latter having a pathway, along which the ministering priest walked. The top was thirty feet square, on which burned three fires. To the south was an inclined plain forty-eight feet long by twenty-four wide, leading up to the altar.

Each corner of the altar had a hollow bronze u corner " rising about eighteen inches high, to typify the arms of the cross. The one at the southwest had two openings with silver funnels, into which they poured the wine and water on the feast of Tabernacles, foretelling the Mass.' This ever-burning fire, which had come down from heaven, in these three places on the sacrificial altar imaged the Shekina as fire and cloud on the mercy-seat.' One fire was to burn the flesh of the animals, the other was for the incense, the third to light the other fires if they went out. The roasted flesh was removed each day ; but the bread and wine on Saturday were taken from the Holies and laid on a table for the priests to eat and drink. At the north of the altar stood the in coming priests chosen by " lot," and on the south stood the outgoing clergy, who had finished their duties for that week, the latter took their portions of bread and wine ; in the center stood the high priest, and as the outgoing priests passed, they gave him half their portion of the proposition bread. The bread could be eaten and the sacred

> 1 Par. xxli. 14, etc. ' Ederehelm, Temple, 82, 88. Macta. i. 22.
30 THE SACRED AND PROFANE VX.ACES.

wine partaken of only on Saturday by priests in a state of Levitical purity, to foretell that only priests free from mortal sin must partake of Communion. A red line ran round the middle of the altar ; above, the blood of the victims to be eaten was thrown, and below, the blood of the holocausts " entirely consumed." '

At the north of the altar rose six long rows of stone pillars, each about nine feet high, having near the top four rings to which they tied the bodies of the victims while removing the skins. Near-by were eight lower stone pillars, with hooks on which they hung the pieces of sacrificial flesh. Near-by were a marble table for laying out the pieces, a gold table for sacrificial vessels after the service, and another silver table on which they laid the victims before the services. The Temple places we have described called the Chel "The Sacred Place," was surrounded by the Choi "The Profane." There the Gentiles could worship. But they were forbidden under pain of death to enter farther in. Greek, Latin and Hebrew bronze tablets on the surrounding marble balustrade, some of them found in the ruins in our day, told them the penalty of entering beyond. This Profane Place represented the Heathen nations not yet called to the Church till the Apostles went to preach to them. This is the reason every Catholic Church has a porch representing the heathens and infidels. Now let us see the origin and history of these sacrifices of the Jewish Church. The grand liturgy of the Temple, the sacrifices of the Hebrew Courts have passed away, for the Sacrifice of the cross they foretold has been accom plished, while the sacrifice and ceremonial of the Holies, foretelling the Mass, still continues in the Eucharistic sacrifice. When God condemned our parents for their sin, He foretold that from the woman would be born a Personage who would crush the serpent's head.'

Then was revealed a person more powerful than the demon ; the Seed of a virgin, a father is not mentioned ; suffering is in the prediction that his heel would be bruised; and victory in the words that he would crush the serpent's head.'"
« Last Edit: February 13, 2020, 07:11:44 AM by Xavier »
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Offer your Life to Jesus and Mary: TEXT OF THE LIFE OFFERING, adapted: Dear Lord Jesus, before the Holy Trinity, Our Heavenly Mother, and the whole Heavenly Court, united with Your most Precious Blood and Your Sacrifice on Calvary, We hereby Offer our whole Lives to the Intention of Your Sacred Heart and to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Together with our life, we place at Your disposal all Holy Masses, all our Holy Communions, all Rosaries, all acts of consecration, all our good deeds, all our sacrifices, and the suffering of our entire life for the Adoration and Supplication of the Holy Trinity, for Unity in our Holy Mother Church, for the Holy Father, Pope Francis the First; and for His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI. For His Eminence Patriarch Kirill of Moscow, His Excellency Metropolitan Hilarion, as well as His Eminence Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople, that they may re-unite their flocks with the Roman Catholic Church, and there may soon be but One Fold and One Shepherd. For all the 220+ Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, for all 6000+ Bishops of the Universal Church that they may be true Apostles and Shepherds; and for the 400,000+ Priests, the 700,000+ Nuns, 50,000+ Monks, 100,000+ seminarians, that they may all become the Saints the Divine Will wishes them to be; for all the 1.35 Billion Members of the Church, the Millions of Catholic Catechumens and Children to be born and baptized in this Decade; we pray for good Priestly and Religious Vocations, for All Lay Apostolates, and All Souls until the end of the world. O my Jesus, please accept our life Sacrifice and our offerings and give us Your grace that we may all persevere obediently until death. Amen." https://marianapostolate.com/life-offering/

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