Author Topic: How would you name the 4 quarters or 500 year periods of past Christian History?  (Read 884 times)

Offline Xavier

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How would you name the 4 great quarters or 500 year periods of past Christian History?

Only one word is allowed: it should be the completion of the statement, the Age of .... :)

My names would be:

[Edit:]Dec.25, 01 BC - Dec.31 499 A.D. The Age of Martyrs.
Jan.1st, 500 A.D.-Jan.31st 999 A.D. The Age of Evangelism.
Jan.1st, 1000 A.D.-Jan.31st 1499 A.D. The Age of Saints.
Jan.1st 1500 A.D.-Jan.1st 1999 A.D. The Age of Heresy.

And then there could be brief justifications for the word. And the reason you chose it.

And a fifth period, which is mostly in the future, could also be named/guessed at/prophesied over.

Jan. 1st 2001 A.D.-Jan. 1st 2500 A.D. The Age of Triumph.

This future and this history is still waiting to be written, the Holy Spirit will choose people for that.

We could also note a series of say 5 important events for any century. I'll start for the 1st one.

1 B.C to 100 A.D.: 5 important events noted for Christ's Century:

Dec. 25th 01 B.C.: The Prince of Peace, the King of Martyrs, the Lamb of God, is born. Mother Mary and St. Joseph rejoice. The Shepherds Come to Adore. The Angels Appear. The Star guides the Wise Men. The Magi Adore. The Holy Innocents become first Martyrs.

Circa. 12 A.D.: The Son of God, Teacher of Divine Wisdom, teaches Gamaliel and Hillel in the Temple, that the Messiah has come - proving this incontrovertibly from the ancient Prophets, doing it all without identifying Himself; later on, Rabbi Gamaliel would convert.

Nisan 14, 33 A.D.: After His glorious 3 1/2 Year Ministry of Healings, Exorcisms, Divine Teaching, Jesus Christ gives His Life in Redeeming Sacrifice for the sins of the world, becoming the King and Greatest of all Martyrs ever, and the permanent living example for them all. On the Third Day, on Easter Sunday, He gloriously rises from the Dead. After 40 days of Apparitions to His Apostles, He ascends to Heaven. On the 50th day, as He had promised from the Father, His Holy Spirit descends on Pentecost Sunday, His Apostles are transformed, illumined and strengthed, become great Saints, the World is changed forever, and the Rest is HiStory, i.e. His Story.

41 A.D. to 60 A.D.: All the Holy Gospels and many of the Pauline epistles are written. The Council of Jerusalem is called around 48 A.D. and likely approved the 3 Synoptics for publication. St. Paul makes reference to St. Luke's services to the Gospel. St. Jacob/James the Great, visits and preaches in Spain, then is Martyred by King Herod. St. Thomas the Apostle preaches the Catholic Faith in India. The holy Apostles travel the world St. Jacob/James the Just alone remains in and sacrifices his life for Jerusalem.

61 A.D. to 80 A.D.: St. Jacob the Just is martyred, to the utter shock of even good men in Jerusalem who knew his innocence &justice. The fall of Jerusalem is made known through a private revelation to St. Simeon, who condemned St. James' Martyrdom, and was next Bishop. The prophesied tragic event of Jerusalem's fall for crucifying and rejecting Christ occurs in the year 70 A.D. The Temple is destroyed, as Jesus Christ, alone against the whole world, said it would be. The Gospel of Christ enlightens the Gentiles to the farthest ends of the earth. Many of the holy Apostles are Martyred for Christ in this time, like Saints Peter and Paul in Rome in 67 A.D.

81 A.D. to 100 A.D.: Pope St. Clement of Rome writes an extremely important letter to the Church of Corinth, demonstrating Petrine Headship over the whole Church, and the permanent Apostolic Authority of the Holy Roman Church. Gnosticism and other unApostolic heresies stand condemned.
« Last Edit: July 17, 2019, 12:28:29 PM by Xavier »
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Offline Maximilian

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Jan. 1st 2001 A.D.-Jan. 1st 2500 A.D. The Age of Apostasy.

1. The natural sequel to your named Age of Heresy.
2. Matches what we witness since we are living in this age.
 
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Offline Vetus Ordo

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My names would be:

Dec.25, 01 BC - Dec.31 499 A.D. The Age of Martyrs.
Jan.1st, 501 A.D.-Jan.31st 999 A.D. The Age of Evangelism.
Jan.1st, 1001 A.D.-Jan.31st 1499 A.D. The Age of Saints.
Jan.1st 1501 A.D.-Jan.1st 1999 A.D. The Age of Heresy.

Why are you skipping the final year of each century?

There's no year 500, 1000 and 1500 in your count.
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Offline Xavier

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We have reason to fear that, Max; naturally speaking, given the tide of events. :) But thank Goodness we have Heavenly Promises to the Contrary, including from Our Lady of Fatima, else we may have lost all hope by now. "Hope is a good thing, maybe the best of things, and no good thing ever dies", a good man once said. ;) And then we have St. Claude and the Saints who say it is not possible to hope too much in God, provided we make use of the means of hope; as for example, it is not too much hope for final perseverance from Mother Mary, provided we make use of Her means given for that end like the Brown Scapular, as we commemorated just recently. In the same way, it's not too much to hope that, although heresy, and yes, even apostasy seems triumphant now, the Lord will Triumph in the end, and let us make use of Total Consecration to the Immaculate Heart for that, given by St. Louis Marie de Montfort and Mother Mary.

The Second Christian Century: The Century of Christ's Popes, Martyrs, Saints:

101 A.D.-200 A.D. The 6th to 15th Popes are appointed by Christ as His Vicars. Every one of them Saints and Martyrs for Christ. After we had (1) Pope St. Peter I, (2) Pope St. Linus I, (3) Pope St. Anacletus I, (4) Pope St. Clement I, (5) Pope St. Evaristus I, in the First Century, (cf. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_popes#2nd_century), we have, as mentioned in the link, (6) Pope St. Alexander I, (7) Pope St. Sixtus I, (8) Pope St. Telesphorus I, (9) Papa St. Hyginus I, (10) Papa St. Pius 1 (Pius!!!), (11) Papa St. Anicetus I, (12) Papa St. Sote II, (13) Papa St. Eleutherius I, (14) Papa St. Victor I, and finally, to end of the 2nd century (15) Papa St. Zephyrinus I.

Wow! I mean, Wow!!

Please see the link for the Icons of the Holy Roman Pontiffs who have governed the whole Church from the Apostolic Throne of St. Peter.

Some other events come to mind, but doubtless I am missing very many, and others who know better can kindly fill in the gaps:

107 A.D. Martyrdom of St. Ignatius: Heroic Martyrdom of Bishop St. Ignatius of Antioch, disciple of St. John the Apostle. Had spoken of the Roman Church as "the Church which Presides in Love". St. Ignatius, after the Creed of the Apostles, is our second remaining explicit witness that Holy Mother Church was ever called "The Catholic Church". Wrote beautiful epistles for many Churches. Longed to give his life for Christ in Sacrifice, as Christ had Sacrificed His life for him. Said to be the child the Lord Jesus kept on His lap.

Life, Preaching and Martyrdom of St. Irenaeus of Lyons (130 A.D. to 200 A.D.) - First Fruits of the Martyrs --- France begins to be evangelized(!), to realize her glorious destiny as the Eldest Daughter of the Catholic Church: St. Irenaeus hands down Apostolic Doctrine on how to recognize and oppose heresy and schism. Importance of knowing the Sacred Scriptures. Importance of holding to Sacred Tradition. Importance of the Episcopate and Priesthood of Jesus Christ and of the Faithful Cleaving to them. Importance of the Supreme Authority of "That Greatest, Most Glorious and Most Universally Known Church, founded by the two most glorious Apostles, Peter and Paul, in Rome. For with this Church, because of Her Superior Authority, it is always necessary for the other Churches, the Faithful everywhere, to be in Communion."

St. Irenaeus who spent much of his life in Asia, and was thus a witness to the Tradition of the East, was Bishop of Lyons in France, and thus unites in himself awareness of both East and West, and is a common witness to both Traditions. St. Irenaeus' evangelized France.

The Life of St. Justin the Apologist, Honorably Styled, the Martyr (100 A.D. to 165 A.D.): Wrote many books and engaged in many apologetic works aimed at drawing in both Jews and pagans to the Catholic Faith. His Apologia has received rich and well-deserved praise, and is a model Apologetic work of a Christian Theologian worthy to be studied by all ages. Showed the Messianic Prophesies to Jews. Lived a Holy Life.

And who can tell of great Bishop St. Appolinaris the Apologist, and of so many other Fathers, Martyrs, Saints, in just these 2 centuries?

O how great and glorious is even the very beginnings alone of Christian History! Were there no other reason, all should be Catholics and Christians for the sole reason and the great reminders of the amazing things Almighty God alone has done through His Church's History.

Yes, Vetus, thanks for pointing that mistake of mine. I'll be modifying the op shortly to correct that.  [Edit: done] God bless.
« Last Edit: July 17, 2019, 12:31:17 PM by Xavier »
To understand God's Plan for Humanity, and how He has provided the means by which we can minimize the Coming Great Tribulation, read: https://maryrefugeofholylove.com/

Offer your Life to Jesus and Mary: TEXT OF THE LIFE OFFERING, adapted: Dear Lord Jesus, before the Holy Trinity, Our Heavenly Mother, and the whole Heavenly Court, united with Your most Precious Blood and Your Sacrifice on Calvary, We hereby Offer our whole Lives to the Intention of Your Sacred Heart and to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Together with our life, we place at Your disposal all Holy Masses, all our Holy Communions, all Rosaries, all acts of consecration, all our good deeds, all our sacrifices, and the suffering of our entire life for the Adoration and Supplication of the Holy Trinity, for Unity in our Holy Mother Church, for the Holy Father, Pope Francis the First; and for His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI. For His Eminence Patriarch Kirill of Moscow, His Excellency Metropolitan Hilarion, as well as His Eminence Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople, that they may re-unite their flocks with the Roman Catholic Church, and there may soon be but One Fold and One Shepherd. For all the 220+ Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, for all 6000+ Bishops of the Universal Church that they may be true Apostles and Shepherds; and for the 400,000+ Priests, the 700,000+ Nuns, 50,000+ Monks, 100,000+ seminarians, that they may all become the Saints the Divine Will wishes them to be; for all the 1.35 Billion Members of the Church, the Millions of Catholic Catechumens and Children to be born and baptized in this Decade; we pray for good Priestly and Religious Vocations, for All Lay Apostolates, and All Souls until the end of the world. O my Jesus, please accept our life Sacrifice and our offerings and give us Your grace that we may all persevere obediently until death. Amen." https://marianapostolate.com/life-offering/

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Offline Maximilian

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We have reason to fear that, Max; naturally speaking, given the tide of events. :)

But thank Goodness we have Heavenly Promises to the Contrary, including from Our Lady of Fatima, else we may have lost all hope by now. "Hope is a good thing, maybe the best of things, and no good thing ever dies", a good man once said. ;) And then we have St. Claude and the Saints who say it is not possible to hope too much in God, provided we make use of the means of hope; as for example, it is not too much hope for final perseverance from Mother Mary, provided we make use of Her means given for that end like the Brown Scapular, as we commemorated just recently. In the same way, it's not too much to hope that, although heresy, and yes, even apostasy seems triumphant now, the Lord will Triumph in the end, and let us make use of Total Consecration to the Immaculate Heart for that, given by St. Louis Marie de Montfort and Mother Mary.

You are conflating a couple of pairs:

1. The natural with the supernatural.

2. The personal with the historic.

Hope is the virtue that links us to the supernatural world.
No matter what apostasy may occur all around us, we can continue to have hope in our hearts.

But it would be an error to believe that the supernatural hope in our hearts is going to determine a change in the natural order of history.

God's ways are not our ways. For some reason He has decided that this generation should be visited with the greatest loss of faith ever seen in history. This is a reality that cannot be denied.

When the Titanic sinks, I can still cling to a piece of wood that floats by me. But I cannot thereby make the claim that the Titanic hasn't really sunk.
 
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Offline Kreuzritter

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The age of formation.
The age of consolidation.
The age of innovation.
The age of destruction.
 

Offline Vetus Ordo

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Yes, Vetus, thanks for pointing that mistake of mine. I'll be modifying the op shortly to correct that.  [Edit: done] God bless.

[Edit:]Dec.25, 01 BC - Dec.31 499 A.D. The Age of Martyrs.
Jan.1st, 500 A.D.-Jan.31st 999 A.D. The Age of Evangelism.
Jan.1st, 1000 A.D.-Jan.31st 1499 A.D. The Age of Saints.
Jan.1st 1500 A.D.-Jan.1st 1999 A.D. The Age of Heresy.

Even with the correction, Xavier, you still have periods of 499 years, not 500.

The years 500, 1000 and 1500 are the end years of any given century, not the first years of the next one.

In order to be correct, you should have 1-500, 501-1000, 1001-1500, 1501-2000.
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Offline Padraig

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Pedantry is unbecoming, Vetus.
 
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Offline Xavier

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Thanks, all. Minutiae aside, I really hope everyone here contributes much of their own knowledge toward improving our common understanding of Church History, as Christian History is really a vast ocean of God's Doings for His Church, from which we can learn so much. I want to quote Bp. Eusebius' excellent work here, Church History. Unfortunately, it only deals with about the first 330 odd years.

But it is an absolutely model work for the ecclesiastical historian, written beautifully and brilliantly by one competent and learned in it. What is more, we can all get it absolutely free today! As it is available on New Advent, in All Ten Volumes: http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/2501.htm This is Book I, really worht reading: http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/250101.htm

"Chapter 1. The Plan of the Work.

1. It is my purpose to write an account of the lines of succession of the holy apostles, as well as of the times that have elapsed from the days of our Saviour to our own; and to relate the many important events that are said to have occurred in the history of the Church; and to mention those who have governed and presided over the Church in the most prominent parishes, and those who in each generation have proclaimed the divine word either orally or in writing.

2. It is my purpose also to give the names and number and dates of those who through love of innovation have run into the greatest errors, and, proclaiming themselves discoverers of knowledge falsely so-called 1 Timothy 6:20 have like fierce wolves mercilessly devastated the flock of Christ.

3. It is my intention, moreover, to recount the misfortunes that immediately came upon the whole Jewish nation in consequence of their plots against our Saviour, and to record the ways and the times in which the divine word has been attacked by the Gentiles, and to describe the character of those who at various periods have contended for it in the face of blood and of tortures, as well as the confessions which have been made in our own days, and finally the gracious and kindly succor which our Saviour has afforded them all. Since I propose to write of all these things I shall commence my work with the beginning of the dispensation [οἰκονομία] of our Saviour and Lord Jesus Christ."

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Hope is the virtue that links us to the supernatural world. No matter what apostasy may occur all around us, we can continue to have hope in our hearts.

Warmly Agreed, Max. Thank You. If our Catholic Faith is the Supernatural Virtue by which we believe and know all that Almighty God has taught us, then Christian Hope is that Supernatural Virtue by which, led on by Faith, we most firmly expect to receive all that Almighty God has promised. We should of course have hope in our hearts, as you say, and I agree also that we should be realistic in evaluating things that have happened thus far. But my reasons for hope in the future "quarter", which we were discussing, is based on Scriptural and Catholic prophesies. Prophesies can kindle Christian Hope, I think you will agree, dear Max. It can lead us to work harder to realize that Hope. But even apart from working for something we hope for, I would dare to say that as Faith can work Miracles, so also God will work it for those who hope for great things from Him; for it is impossible to hope too much in God. Here is St. Claude on Hope: "ACT OF HOPE AND CONFIDENCE IN GOD St. Claude de la Colombiere: My God, I believe most firmly that You watch over all who hope in You, and that we can want for nothing when we rely upon You in all things." https://www.piercedhearts.org/treasures/devotions/to_saints/claude_colombiere.htm

I'll get back to 2nd Century Church Fathers, Church Mothers, Saints, Popes and Martyrs later on. Anyone who wants can add information.

Here is some analysis and a few testimonies about early Christian History from Catholic, other Christian and non-Christian Historians:

1. Catholic historian Philip Hughes writes --"Ever since the popes were first articulate about the General Council, they have claimed the right to control its action and to give or withhold an approbation of its decisions which stamps them as the authentic teaching of the Church of Christ. Only through their summoning it, or through their consenting to take their place at it (whether personally or by legates sent in their name), or by their subsequent acceptance of the council, does the assembly of bishops become a General Council. No member of the Church has ever proposed that a General Council shall be summoned and the pope be left out, nor that the pope should take any other position at the General Council but as its president...in no council has it been moved that the Bishop of X be promoted to the place of the Bishop of Rome, or that the bishop of Rome's views be disregarded and held of no more account than those of the bishop of any other major see...the general shape is ever discernible of a Roman Primacy universally recognized, and submitted to, albeit (at times) unwillingly -- recognized and submitted to because, so the bishops believed, it was set up by God himself." (Hughes, The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, page 5-6)

2. From the old Catholic Encyclopedia (1913) --"History bears complete testimony that from the very earliest times the Roman See has ever claimed the supreme headship, and that that headship has been freely acknowledged by the universal Church. We shall here confine ourselves to the consideration of the evidence afforded by the first three centuries. The first witness is St. Clement, a disciple of the Apostles, who, after Linus and Anacletus, succeeded St. Peter as the fourth in the list of popes....The tone of authority [in his Epistle to the Corinthians] which inspires the latter appears so clearly that [Protestant scholar J.B.] Lightfoot did not hesitate to speak of it as 'the first step towards papal domination' ...Thus, at the very commencement of church history, before the last survivor of the Apostles had passed away, we find a Bishop of Rome, himself a disciple of St. Peter, intervening in the affairs of another Church and claiming to settle the matter by a decision spoken under the influence of the Holy Spirit. Such a fact admits of one explanation alone. It is that in the days when the Apostolic teaching was yet fresh in men's minds the universal Church recognized in the Bishop of Rome the office of supreme head....The limits of the present article prevent us from carrying the historical argument further than the year 300. Nor is it in fact necessary to do so. From the beginning of the fourth century the supremacy of Rome is writ large upon the page of history. It is only in regard to the first age of the Church that any question can arise. But the facts we have recounted are entirely sufficient to prove to any unprejudiced mind that the supremacy was exercised and acknowledged from the days of the Apostles." (volume 12, article "Pope" page 263, 264)

3. "Anglican scholar J.N.D. Kelly in his classic work Early Christian Doctrines sums up how unanimous the Church was in the patristic period, particularly the fourth and fifth centuries where the documentary evidence becomes overwhelming for the primacy and authority of the Papacy --"Everywhere, in the East no less than the West, Rome enjoyed a special prestige, as is indicated by the precedence accorded without question to it....Thus Rome's preeminance remained undisputed in the patristic period. For evidence of it the student need only recall the leading position claimed as a matter of course by the popes, and freely conceded to them, at the councils of Ephesus (431) and Chalcedon (451). We even find the fifth-century historians Socrates and Sozomen concluding...that it was unconstitutional for synods to be held without the Roman pontiff being invited or for decisions to be taken without his concurrence. At the outbreak of the Christological controversy, it will be remembered, both Nestorius and Cyril hastened to bring their cases to Rome, the latter declaring that the ancient custom of the churches constrained him to communicate matters of such weight to the Pope and to seek his advice before acting. In one of his sermons he goes so far as to salute Celestine as 'the archbishop of the whole world' .....

It goes without saying that Augustine [c. 354 - 430 AD] identifies the Church with the universal Catholic Church of his day, with its hierarchy and sacraments, and with its centre at Rome....By the middle of the fifth century the Roman Church had established, de jure as well as de facto, a position of primacy in the West, and the papal claims to supremacy over all bishops of Christendom had been formulated in precise terms....The student tracing the history of the times, particularly of the Arian, Donatist, Pelagian and Christological controversies, cannot fail to be impressed by the skill and persistence with which the Holy See [of Rome] was continually advancing and consolidating its claims. Since its occupant was accepted as the successor of St. Peter, and prince of the apostles, it was easy to draw the inference that the unique authority which Rome in fact enjoyed, and which the popes saw concentrated in their persons and their office, was no more than the fulfilment of the divine plan." (Kelly, pages 406, 407, 413, 417)"

Taken From: http://www.biblicalcatholic.com/apologetics/PeterRockKeysPrimacyRome.htm
« Last Edit: July 19, 2019, 12:02:11 PM by Xavier »
To understand God's Plan for Humanity, and how He has provided the means by which we can minimize the Coming Great Tribulation, read: https://maryrefugeofholylove.com/

Offer your Life to Jesus and Mary: TEXT OF THE LIFE OFFERING, adapted: Dear Lord Jesus, before the Holy Trinity, Our Heavenly Mother, and the whole Heavenly Court, united with Your most Precious Blood and Your Sacrifice on Calvary, We hereby Offer our whole Lives to the Intention of Your Sacred Heart and to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Together with our life, we place at Your disposal all Holy Masses, all our Holy Communions, all Rosaries, all acts of consecration, all our good deeds, all our sacrifices, and the suffering of our entire life for the Adoration and Supplication of the Holy Trinity, for Unity in our Holy Mother Church, for the Holy Father, Pope Francis the First; and for His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI. For His Eminence Patriarch Kirill of Moscow, His Excellency Metropolitan Hilarion, as well as His Eminence Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople, that they may re-unite their flocks with the Roman Catholic Church, and there may soon be but One Fold and One Shepherd. For all the 220+ Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, for all 6000+ Bishops of the Universal Church that they may be true Apostles and Shepherds; and for the 400,000+ Priests, the 700,000+ Nuns, 50,000+ Monks, 100,000+ seminarians, that they may all become the Saints the Divine Will wishes them to be; for all the 1.35 Billion Members of the Church, the Millions of Catholic Catechumens and Children to be born and baptized in this Decade; we pray for good Priestly and Religious Vocations, for All Lay Apostolates, and All Souls until the end of the world. O my Jesus, please accept our life Sacrifice and our offerings and give us Your grace that we may all persevere obediently until death. Amen." https://marianapostolate.com/life-offering/

"Mother of God, Co-Redemptrix of the world, pray for us" [Promise: 1000 Souls from Purgatory]"This short prayer, this insistent prayer, every time it is said, sets free from Purgatory 1000 Souls, who reach the Eternal Joy, the Eternal Light"(!). http://www.jesusmariasite.org/jesus-pray-my-children-that-the-fifth-marian-dogma-be-proclaimed/
 
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Offline Xavier

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It seems the best way for the most systematic study of Church History - Bp. Eusebius would perhaps agree - is to trace it out in line with the Successors of St. Peter, and the the Apostles in other sees, in that century. In this way, we will learn the names of all our Popes, the 266 Successors of St. Peter who have sat, and recall any major events, histories, Church Fathers, schisms or heresies in their times.

So, we had seen the 15 Popes of the First Two Centuries, all of them Saints. It is said 48 of the first 50 Popes, almost all for 500 years, were Saints, and many were Martyrs. Whether or not Pope Liberius is a Saint is still disputed, with some holding that indeed he was.

Protestant Historian Philip Schaff, after a detailed study of Church History says,"It must in justice be admitted, however, that the list of Roman bishops has by far the preminence in age, completeness, integrity of succession, consistency of doctrine and policy, above every similar catalogue, not excepting those of Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria, and Constantinople...." (Schaff, page 166)"

That is from "History of the Christian Church". Another point, at the end of the 2nd century, we have the first Antipope, Natalius.

The Third Christian Century: Many More Martyrs and Saints, Synods, Sabellianism, Conversions, and Re-Baptism Controversy.

1. The 16th to 29th Popes, Successors of St. Peter, all Saints, many Martyrs (and 2nd and 3rd Antipopes!): The list of Popes continues (16) Pope St. Callixtus I [AntiPope St. Hippolytus I] (17) Pope St. Urban I, (18) Pope St. Pontian (19) Pope St. Anterus (20 Pope St. Fabian, (21) Pope St. Cornelius [Antipope Novatian] (22) Pope St. Lucius I, (23) Pope St. Stephen I, (24) Pope St. Sixtus II (First II, I think), (25) Papa St. Dionysius (26) Papa St. Felix I (27) Papa St. Eutychian, (28) Papa St. Caius, (29) Papa St. Marcellinus.

How many great, Saintly, Apostolic men have sat on the Chair of St. Peter. Truly, the Lord's Promise is verified in all of history. The Faith of Peter will not fail, even in the most trying of circumstances; but it is given as a prayer, that we too may learn to pray for it.

2. St. Cyprian of Carthage in Africa (circa 200 A.D. to 258 A.D., Bishop, Saint, Father, Martyr): St. Cyprian was was a convert, and was an excellent administrator, and skilled writer; from him, we first hear the expression "EENS (Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus)" in the form known to us. St. Cyprian also wrote much about the Unity of the Church. He was made Bishop, and immediately several problems were afflicting the Church. Persecution, internal schisms, worldliness from some Clergy, and then extremes on the other end - Heretics must be re-baptized, Lapsed [Apostates] cannot be restored by Penance etc. A very, very difficult time, no doubt, but St. Cyprian skillfully managed everything. For more on his life, please see the CE: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04583b.htm

The Novatian Schism broke out in his time after Pope St. Fabian was Martyred. St. Cyprian firmly supported Pope St. Cornelius and rejected Anti-Pope Novatian. CE, "Cyprian says that Novatian "assumed the primacy" (Ep. lxix, 8) and sent out his new apostles to very many cities; and where in all provinces and cities there were long established, orthodox bishops, tried in persecution, he dared to create new ones to supplant them, as though he could range through the whole world (Ep. lv, 24). Such was the power assumed by a third-century antipope. Let it be remembered that in the first days of the schism no question of heresy was raised and that Novatian only enunciated his refusal of forgiveness to the lapsed after he had made himself pope. Cyprian's reasons for holding Cornelius to be the true bishop are fully detailed in Ep. lv to a bishop, who had at first yielded to Cyprian's arguments and had commissioned him to inform Cornelius that "he now communicated with him, that is with the Catholic Church", but had afterwards wavered"

Later on, the Re-Baptism Controversy broke out: more careful studies have vindicated St. Cyprian from holding any serious error on the subject, as it was mainly the remission of sins that St. Cyprian wished to deny to heretics; if St. Cyprian had been aware of the matter in the way St. Augustine, who venerated him, would later formulate it, and as we know it, namely that the Character or Seal, like the Sign of the Cross marking their soul, is imparted even in heretical Baptism, but the remission of sins in Catholic Baptism, and infusion of Grace that makes children heirs to heaven and sons or daugthers of God, St. Cyprian would probably have accepted it.

CE: "In the East the custom of rebaptizing heretics had perhaps arisen from the fact that so many heretics disbelieved in the Holy Trinity, and possibly did not even use the right form and matter. For centuries the practice persisted, at least in the case of some of the heresies. But in the West to rebaptize was regarded as heretical, and Africa came into line soon after St. Cyprian. St. Augustine, St. Jerome, and St. Vincent of Lérins are full of praise for the firmness of Stephen as befitting his place."

Finally, other issues like Sabellianism, and the Synods that opposed it could be studied. The next century is time of the Great Councils.
« Last Edit: July 20, 2019, 05:58:03 AM by Xavier »
To understand God's Plan for Humanity, and how He has provided the means by which we can minimize the Coming Great Tribulation, read: https://maryrefugeofholylove.com/

Offer your Life to Jesus and Mary: TEXT OF THE LIFE OFFERING, adapted: Dear Lord Jesus, before the Holy Trinity, Our Heavenly Mother, and the whole Heavenly Court, united with Your most Precious Blood and Your Sacrifice on Calvary, We hereby Offer our whole Lives to the Intention of Your Sacred Heart and to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Together with our life, we place at Your disposal all Holy Masses, all our Holy Communions, all Rosaries, all acts of consecration, all our good deeds, all our sacrifices, and the suffering of our entire life for the Adoration and Supplication of the Holy Trinity, for Unity in our Holy Mother Church, for the Holy Father, Pope Francis the First; and for His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI. For His Eminence Patriarch Kirill of Moscow, His Excellency Metropolitan Hilarion, as well as His Eminence Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople, that they may re-unite their flocks with the Roman Catholic Church, and there may soon be but One Fold and One Shepherd. For all the 220+ Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, for all 6000+ Bishops of the Universal Church that they may be true Apostles and Shepherds; and for the 400,000+ Priests, the 700,000+ Nuns, 50,000+ Monks, 100,000+ seminarians, that they may all become the Saints the Divine Will wishes them to be; for all the 1.35 Billion Members of the Church, the Millions of Catholic Catechumens and Children to be born and baptized in this Decade; we pray for good Priestly and Religious Vocations, for All Lay Apostolates, and All Souls until the end of the world. O my Jesus, please accept our life Sacrifice and our offerings and give us Your grace that we may all persevere obediently until death. Amen." https://marianapostolate.com/life-offering/

"Mother of God, Co-Redemptrix of the world, pray for us" [Promise: 1000 Souls from Purgatory]"This short prayer, this insistent prayer, every time it is said, sets free from Purgatory 1000 Souls, who reach the Eternal Joy, the Eternal Light"(!). http://www.jesusmariasite.org/jesus-pray-my-children-that-the-fifth-marian-dogma-be-proclaimed/
 

Offline Xavier

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The Fourth Christian Century: A Century of the Most Amazing Triumphs, the Most Splendid Miracles, of Most Glorious Catholic Councils:

We may well call this Century the Century of the Most Holy Trinity, for in it by great and glorious Saints of God like St. Alexander, St. Athanasius, St. Hilary, St. Nicholas, St. Ambrose, St. Augustine, St. Basil, St. Chrysostom, St. Gregory of Nyssa, St. Gregory of Nazianzus, St. Jerome, Pope St. Sylvester, Pope St. Julius, Pope St. Damasus, and so many other great,holy, learned, pious and wise men, the Catholic Faith seemed incredibly to triumph everywhere, crushing all heresies, defeating idolatry and paganism, and replacing superstition with true religion and piety. Godliness prevailed over godlessness, heresies and schisms ended, and pagans were converted to the Catholic Church.

We may divide the Century into Two Halves: In the First Half, Catholic Faith in the Divinity of the Son of God, Our Lord Jesus Christ, as True God Consubstantial with His Father, triumphed in the Catholic Council of Nicaea I, 325 A.D. Arianism did not die easily though.

301 A.D.-400 A.D. The 30th to 39th Popes are appointed by God to Shepherd His Flock. Numerous Saints and most holy Apostolic Men. In the Fourth Century A.D. (1) Papa St. Marcellus I, (2) Papa St. Eusebius I, (3) Papa St. Militiades I, (4) Papa St. Sylvester I, (5) Papa St. Mark I, (6) Pope St. Julius I, (7) Pope [St?] Liberius I [venerated as Saint in the East], (8) Pope St. Damasus I [truly a very great and under-appreciated Pope Saint - Commissioned St. Jerome, Decree of Saint Damasus codified the Bible Canon, taught the Filioque Dogma against Macedonian Heretics - and against the heretical partisans of later Photian Monopatrism], (9) Papa St. Siricius I, (10) Papa St. Anastasius 1, From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_popes#4th_century

300 A.D to 100 A.D.: 5 important events noted for the Most Holy Trinity's Century, when Faith in Christ and the Holy Spirit won:

I. Conversion of Constantine and Edict of Milan, 313 A.D.: Almighty God magnificently intervenes in human history. Hearing the Prayers of His Martyred Faithful, and of His Catholic Remnant true to Him at all costs, Almighty God miraculously converts the hitherto pagan and henceforth glorious Christian Emperor Constantine the Great. Constantine understands "In Hoc Signo Vinces -In this Sign you will Conquer". Later Constantine's Mother Empress St. Helena the Great would aid in the discovery of the True Cross of Our Lord. Everything in Constantine's life shows how much God exalts and will exalt those who love His Holy Cross, and are dedicated only to It.

II. The First and Great Ecumenical Council of Nicaea, 325 A.D. : 318 Most Holy Fathers gather in the Council of Nicaea as Bishops of the Universal Church faithful to Constantine and to Rome. Arius the Heretic is condemned and anathematized. The Holy Nicene Creed is drawn up, to be forever a bulwark and Symbol of Apostolic and Catholic Faith. Faith in Christ's Divinity is established so firmly that all Heaven and Earth rejoices. St. Nicholas punches Arius. St. Athanasius was present as deacon and auxiliary of St. Alexander. The holy Creed of Nicaea is translated into Latin and other languages, and all the Churches rejoice to profess this Catholic and Apostolic Faith.

See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Council_of_Nicaea

III. Council of Sardica, St. Athanasius Present; Roman Primacy Confirmed, 343 A.D: After the Catholic Faith in the Divinity of Christ was established, various heretics tried to persecute St. Athanasius and Rome, to whom it was said, "You support Athanasius contra mundum - i.e. against the world". But St. Athanasius confirmed the Primacy of Judging or Jurisdiction to the Roman Church and the Roman Bishop only, and his friend Pope St. Julius was ever his steadfast supporter. Roman Tradition says St. Athanasius delivered his Athanasian Creed to Pope St. Julius during his stay with him when escaping or fleeing persecution in his own diocese or eparchy. The Popes of Rome never dogmatically upheld and taught the Catholic Faith in the Son of God, and also, with increasing explicitness, the Catholic Faith in the Spirit of God. In this council, heretics were told that Rome had jurisdiction over all, and Her sentence was final.

See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_of_Serdica

Even amidst terrible persecution, great Saintly Fathers rise up to fight Arianism and Donatism, Macedonianism and Apollinarianism etc.

IV. The Great Fathers of East and West arise like never before in the Church: Firstfruits of the Dogmatic Declaration of Christ's Divinity, it seems that so many and so great Fathers and Saints arise everywhere like never before. St. Ambrose in Milan, Spain, St. Augustine in Hippo, Africa, St. John Chrysostom in Constantinople, St. Basil from Cappadocia in Asia Minor, and the St. Gregories, from Nyssa and Nazianzus, the Theologian, and so many other Great Saints. God favors His Church with Saints when Dogma is declared.

V. Council of Constantinople, 381 A.D.; Council of Pope St. Damasus in Rome, 382 A.D: The Completion and Crown of this Fourth Christian Century would be the Dogma on the Holy Spirit's Divinity, defined in Constantinople and confirmed in Rome. The Biblical Canon is also completely defined both in African Councils and also in Rome under Pope St. Damasus. Pope St. Damasus also pronounces the Filioque Dogma, against a heresy that would arise almost 500 years later under the heresiarch Photius. The Holy Spirit's Divinity becomes unquestionable, and heretics who deny it are anathematized as blasphemers of the Holy Spirit cut off from Grace and all Life. In time, the adherents of many heretical sects return to the Catholic Church.

In brief, the Catholic Faith triumphs everywhere. The Dogma on the Holy Trinity is most firmly established. A Most Glorious Century.
« Last Edit: February 03, 2020, 03:38:42 PM by Xavier »
To understand God's Plan for Humanity, and how He has provided the means by which we can minimize the Coming Great Tribulation, read: https://maryrefugeofholylove.com/

Offer your Life to Jesus and Mary: TEXT OF THE LIFE OFFERING, adapted: Dear Lord Jesus, before the Holy Trinity, Our Heavenly Mother, and the whole Heavenly Court, united with Your most Precious Blood and Your Sacrifice on Calvary, We hereby Offer our whole Lives to the Intention of Your Sacred Heart and to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Together with our life, we place at Your disposal all Holy Masses, all our Holy Communions, all Rosaries, all acts of consecration, all our good deeds, all our sacrifices, and the suffering of our entire life for the Adoration and Supplication of the Holy Trinity, for Unity in our Holy Mother Church, for the Holy Father, Pope Francis the First; and for His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI. For His Eminence Patriarch Kirill of Moscow, His Excellency Metropolitan Hilarion, as well as His Eminence Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople, that they may re-unite their flocks with the Roman Catholic Church, and there may soon be but One Fold and One Shepherd. For all the 220+ Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, for all 6000+ Bishops of the Universal Church that they may be true Apostles and Shepherds; and for the 400,000+ Priests, the 700,000+ Nuns, 50,000+ Monks, 100,000+ seminarians, that they may all become the Saints the Divine Will wishes them to be; for all the 1.35 Billion Members of the Church, the Millions of Catholic Catechumens and Children to be born and baptized in this Decade; we pray for good Priestly and Religious Vocations, for All Lay Apostolates, and All Souls until the end of the world. O my Jesus, please accept our life Sacrifice and our offerings and give us Your grace that we may all persevere obediently until death. Amen." https://marianapostolate.com/life-offering/

"Mother of God, Co-Redemptrix of the world, pray for us" [Promise: 1000 Souls from Purgatory]"This short prayer, this insistent prayer, every time it is said, sets free from Purgatory 1000 Souls, who reach the Eternal Joy, the Eternal Light"(!). http://www.jesusmariasite.org/jesus-pray-my-children-that-the-fifth-marian-dogma-be-proclaimed/
 

Offline Xavier

  • Eternal Father, through Mary's Immaculate Heart, We Offer You the Body and Blood, Soul and Divinity of Your Dearly Beloved Son, Our Lord Jesus Christ in Atonement for our sins and those of the Whole World.
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The Fifth Christian Century: Another Century of Amazing Triumphs. Faith in the Incarnation of God the Word now triumphs everywhere. The Heroes Patriarch St. Cyril and Popes St. Celestine and especially Saint Leo the Great, August Pontiff who crushed Nestorianism and Monophysitism. The Precursor to the Age of Evangelism. France and Ireland Evangelized. King Clovis I of France:

401 A.D.-500 A.D. The 40th to 50th Popes are appointed by God to Shepherd His Flock. More Angelic and Apostolic Holy, Wise, Pious, and Eminently Learned Men. God has never failed in His Promise to send Angelic Shepherds to His Church until the end of time. (40) Papa St. Innocent I (401 A.D. to 417 A.D.) (41) Papa St. Zosimus (417-418) (42) Papa St. Boniface (418 to 422) (43) Papa St. Celestine (422-432 A.D) (44) Papa St. Sixtus III (432-440; (45) Papa St. Leo the Great (440-461 A.D.) (46) Pope St. Hilary I (461-468) (47) Pope St. Simplicius I (468-483) (48) Pope St. Felix III (483-492) (49) Pope St. Gelasius I (492-496) (50) Pope Anastasius II (496-498) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_popes#5th_century

401 A.D to 500 A.D.: 5 important events noted for the Century of the Incarnation of God's Son. The Precursor to the Age of Evangelism:

401 A.D to 420 A.D., Council of Carthage 418 A.D. Pelagianism condemned, Original Sin Defined: In this great Council where Bishop St. Augustine was present, the Catholic Church defined Infant Baptism and Original Sin as Creedal and Scriptural Dogma, and condemned Pelagianism and its variants: That infants are baptized for the remission of sins. (Canon 2 of 418 Synod)

Likewise it seemed good that whosoever denies that infants newly from their mother’s wombs should be baptized, or says that baptism is for remission of sins, but that they derive from Adam no original sin, which needs to be removed by the laver of regeneration, from whence the conclusion follows, that in them the form of baptism for the remission of sins, is to be understood as false and not true, let him be anathema. For no otherwise can be understood what the Apostle says, “By one man sin is come into the world, and death through sin, and so death passed upon all men in that all have sinned,” than the Catholic Church everywhere diffused has always understood it. For on account of this rule of faith even infants, who could have committed as yet no sin themselves, therefore are truly baptized for the remission of sins, in order that what in them is the result of generation may be cleansed by regeneration." https://earlychurchtexts.com/public/carthage_canons_on_sin_and_grace.htm

421 A.D to 440 A.D., Council of Ephesus, 431 A.D.: Glorious Ecumenical Council that condemned Nestorius and defined dogmatically that Mary Immaculate was the true Virgin Mother of God: http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/3810.htm

Some noteworthy teachings: "If anyone will not confess that the Emmanuel is very God, and that therefore the Holy Virgin is the Mother of God (Θεοτόκος), inasmuch as in the flesh she bore the Word of God made flesh [as it is written, The Word was made flesh] let him be anathema."

"Philip the presbyter and legate of the Apostolic See said: There is no doubt, and in fact it has been known in all ages, that the holy and most blessed Peter, prince (ἔξαρχος) and head of the Apostles, pillar of the faith, and foundation (θεμέλιος) of the Catholic Church, received the keys of the kingdom from our Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour and Redeemer of the human race, and that to him was given the power of loosing and binding sins: who down even to today and forever both lives and judges in his successors. The holy and most blessed pope Cślestine, according to due order, is his successor and holds his place, and us he sent to supply his place in this holy synod , which the most humane and Christian Emperors have commanded to assemble, bearing in mind and continually watching over the Catholic faith." See also: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05491a.htm

Glorious Saint Patrick, sent by Pope St. Celestine, Evangelizes Ireland!: "Pope St. Celestine I, who rendered immortal service to the Church by the overthrow of the Pelagian and Nestorian heresies, and by the imperishable wreath of honour decreed to the Blessed Virgin in the General Council of Ephesus, crowned his pontificate by an act of the most far-reaching consequences for the spread of Christianity and civilization, when he entrusted St. Patrick with the mission of gathering the Irish race into the one fold of Christ. Palladius had already received that commission, but terrified by the fierce opposition of a Wicklow chieftain had abandoned the sacred enterprise. It was St. Germain, Bishop of Auxerre, who commended Patrick to the pope. The writer of St. Germain's Life in the ninth century, Heric of Auxerre, thus attests this important fact: "Since the glory of the father shines in the training of the children, of the many sons in Christ whom St. Germain is believed to have had as disciples in religion, let it suffice to make mention here, very briefly, of one most famous, Patrick, the special Apostle of the Irish nation, as the record of his work proves. Subject to that most holy discipleship for 18 years, he drank in no little knowledge in Holy Scripture from the stream of so great a well-spring. Germain sent him, accompanied by Segetius, his priest, to Celestine, Pope of Rome, approved of by whose judgement, supported by whose authority, and strengthened by whose blessing, he went on his way to Ireland." It was only shortly before his death that Celestine gave this mission to Ireland's apostle and on that occasion bestowed on him many relics and other spiritual gifts, and gave him the name "Patercius" or "Patritius", not as an honorary title, but as a foreshadowing of the fruitfulness and merit of his apostolate whereby he became pater civium (the father of his people). Patrick on his return journey from Rome received at Ivrea the tidings of the death of Palladius, and turning aside to the neighboring city of Turin received episcopal consecration at the hands of its great bishop, St. Maximus, and thence hastened on to Auxerre to make under the guidance of St. Germain due preparations for the Irish mission.

It was probably in the summer months of the year 433, that Patrick and his companions landed at the mouth of the Vantry River close by Wicklow Head. The Druids were at once in arms against him. But Patrick was not disheartened. The intrepid missionary resolved to search out a more friendly territory in which to enter on his mission. First of all, however, he would proceed towards Dalriada, where he had been a slave, to pay the price of ransom to his former master, and in exchange for the servitude and cruelty endured at his hands to impart to him the blessings and freedom of God's children. He rested for some days at the islands off the Skerries coast, one of which still retains the name of Inis-Patrick, and he probably visited the adjoining mainland, which in olden times was known as Holm Patrick. Tradition fondly points out the impression of St. Patrick's foot upon the hard rock — off the main shore, at the entrance to Skerries harbour. Continuing his course northwards he halted at the mouth of the River Boyne. A number of the natives there gathered around him and heard with joy in their own sweet tongue the glad tidings of Redemption. There too he performed his first miracle on Irish soil to confirm the honour due to the Blessed Virgin, and the Divine birth of our Saviour. Leaving one of his companions to continue the work of instruction so auspiciously begun, he hastened forward to Strangford Loughand there quitting his boat continued his journey over land towards Slemish. He had not proceeded far when a chieftain, named Dichu, appeared on the scene to prevent his further advance. He drew his sword to smite the saint, but his arm became rigid as a statue and continued so until he declared himself obedient to Patrick. Overcome by the saint's meekness and miracles, Dichu asked for instruction and made a gift of a large sabhall (barn), in which the sacred mysteries were offered up. This was the first sanctuary dedicated by St. Patrick in Erin. It became in later years a chosen retreat of the saint. A monastery and church were erected there, and the hallowed site retains the name Sabhall (pronounced Saul) to the present day." http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11554a.htm
 
[rest of the century relegated to next post; as there are so many events in the first forty years of this century alone]
« Last Edit: February 03, 2020, 03:47:40 PM by Xavier »
To understand God's Plan for Humanity, and how He has provided the means by which we can minimize the Coming Great Tribulation, read: https://maryrefugeofholylove.com/

Offer your Life to Jesus and Mary: TEXT OF THE LIFE OFFERING, adapted: Dear Lord Jesus, before the Holy Trinity, Our Heavenly Mother, and the whole Heavenly Court, united with Your most Precious Blood and Your Sacrifice on Calvary, We hereby Offer our whole Lives to the Intention of Your Sacred Heart and to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Together with our life, we place at Your disposal all Holy Masses, all our Holy Communions, all Rosaries, all acts of consecration, all our good deeds, all our sacrifices, and the suffering of our entire life for the Adoration and Supplication of the Holy Trinity, for Unity in our Holy Mother Church, for the Holy Father, Pope Francis the First; and for His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI. For His Eminence Patriarch Kirill of Moscow, His Excellency Metropolitan Hilarion, as well as His Eminence Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople, that they may re-unite their flocks with the Roman Catholic Church, and there may soon be but One Fold and One Shepherd. For all the 220+ Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, for all 6000+ Bishops of the Universal Church that they may be true Apostles and Shepherds; and for the 400,000+ Priests, the 700,000+ Nuns, 50,000+ Monks, 100,000+ seminarians, that they may all become the Saints the Divine Will wishes them to be; for all the 1.35 Billion Members of the Church, the Millions of Catholic Catechumens and Children to be born and baptized in this Decade; we pray for good Priestly and Religious Vocations, for All Lay Apostolates, and All Souls until the end of the world. O my Jesus, please accept our life Sacrifice and our offerings and give us Your grace that we may all persevere obediently until death. Amen." https://marianapostolate.com/life-offering/

"Mother of God, Co-Redemptrix of the world, pray for us" [Promise: 1000 Souls from Purgatory]"This short prayer, this insistent prayer, every time it is said, sets free from Purgatory 1000 Souls, who reach the Eternal Joy, the Eternal Light"(!). http://www.jesusmariasite.org/jesus-pray-my-children-that-the-fifth-marian-dogma-be-proclaimed/
 

Offline TheReturnofLive

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Here's one:

The End Times.