Author Topic: The 4 Holy Gospels of Jesus Christ: Their Authorship and Date of Composition.  (Read 488 times)

Offline Xavier

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As the Lives of the Saints in general shows God's wondrous Providence for His Church and is an invitation to unbelievers to come to the Truth of the Gospel, so the historical fact of the lives of the first Apostles and disciples, taught by the Saint of Saints, and made Saints by Him, is also great testimony to that Truth.

The Catholic Encyclopedia has an article on each of the 4 Holy Gospels of Jesus Christ, written by His Apostles and Disciples. The rough dates for their authorship are likely (1) Gospel of St. Matthew, about A.D. 40 to 45, (2) Gospel of St. Mark, about A.D. 45 to A.D. 48, certainly before A.D. 50 as shown by the manuscript 7Q5, (3) Gospel of St. Luke, about A.D. 48-52, (4) Gospel of St. John, about A.D. 55 to 60 A.D. St. John saw the other three Gospels and approved them, but wanted to add more details about the Life of the Lord that He knew so well. At any rate all the Gospels pre-date 60 A.D. That the Gospels were written early and by these holy Apostles and Apostolic men is related by so many early historians, sometimes on different continents, that it is historically certain. Secularists misdate the Gospels and sometimes deny their authorship because, if they honestly admit the historical Truth that the Gospels were written early and by the Apostles, they know they may be led in time to give up secularism and become Christians.

They were written respectively by (1) St. Matthew, Apostle of Our Lord Jesus Christ. St. Matthew the Apostle later in life proclaimed the Gospel and preached in Ethiopia where he was martyred while offering the Holy Sacrifice (2) St. Mark, Disciple of St. Peter, the Apostle of Jesus Christ; St. Mark was later Patriarch of the Church of Alexandria, and was martyred being dragged on rope in that city. St. Mark was also one of the 72 mentioned in Luk 10:17 (3) St. Luke, disciple of St. Paul the Apostle who was companion and fellow martyr with St. Peter later in Rome; St. Luke himself another one of the 72, and one of the two disciples on the Road to Emmaus. St. Luke handed down many painting of Our Lady and Our Lord, and had a peaceful death in Boetia, Greece around A.D. 84. In Acts, St. Luke says Jesus "shewed himself alive after his passion, by many proofs, for forty days appearing to them, and speaking of the kingdom of God." (1:3) (4) St. John the Apostle, the beloved Disciple of the Lord Jesus, so dear to His Sacred Heart, who reposed on It before the First Mass; who was burned in boiling oil, but preserved alive, exiled to Patmos, and lived to a ripe old age.

http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10057a.htm (Gospel of St. Matthew)
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09674b.htm (Gospel of St. Mark)
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09420a.htm (Gospel of St. Luke)
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08438a.htm (Gospel of St. John)

Have non-Catholics studied the Gospel biographies, the Life and Person of Jesus Christ, the lives and histories of the Apostles who wrote it, tracking their holy works to so many different countries, of which those countries (e.g. Sts. Peter and Paul in Rome, St. James the Great in Spain, St. James the Just in Jerusalem, St. Thomas in India etc) and so many others are witnesses, and asked themselves how this could have happened, if the Apostles were just mistaken or lying? Only one thing can explain the holy lives of the great Apostles, made world-conquerors by Christ. Their heroic deaths and willing martyrdoms show they were witnesses of the Risen Christ.
« Last Edit: January 23, 2019, 06:04:01 AM by Xavier »
To understand God's Plan for Humanity, and how He has provided the means by which we can minimize the Coming Great Tribulation, read: https://maryrefugeofholylove.com/

Offer your Life to Jesus and Mary: TEXT OF THE LIFE OFFERING, adapted: Dear Lord Jesus, before the Holy Trinity, Our Heavenly Mother, and the whole Heavenly Court, united with Your most Precious Blood and Your Sacrifice on Calvary, We hereby Offer our whole Lives to the Intention of Your Sacred Heart and to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Together with our life, we place at Your disposal all Holy Masses, all our Holy Communions, all Rosaries, all acts of consecration, all our good deeds, all our sacrifices, and the suffering of our entire life for the Adoration and Supplication of the Holy Trinity, for Unity in our Holy Mother Church, for the Holy Father, Pope Francis the First; and for His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI. For His Eminence Patriarch Kirill of Moscow, His Excellency Metropolitan Hilarion, as well as His Eminence Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople, that they may re-unite their flocks with the Roman Catholic Church, and there may soon be but One Fold and One Shepherd. For all the 220+ Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, for all 6000+ Bishops of the Universal Church that they may be true Apostles and Shepherds; and for the 400,000+ Priests, the 700,000+ Nuns, 50,000+ Monks, 100,000+ seminarians, that they may all become the Saints the Divine Will wishes them to be; for all the 1.35 Billion Members of the Church, the Millions of Catholic Catechumens and Children to be born and baptized in this Decade; we pray for good Priestly and Religious Vocations, for All Lay Apostolates, and All Souls until the end of the world. O my Jesus, please accept our life Sacrifice and our offerings and give us Your grace that we may all persevere obediently until death. Amen." https://marianapostolate.com/life-offering/

"Mother of God, Co-Redemptrix of the world, pray for us" [Promise: 1000 Souls from Purgatory]"This short prayer, this insistent prayer, every time it is said, sets free from Purgatory 1000 Souls, who reach the Eternal Joy, the Eternal Light"(!). http://www.jesusmariasite.org/jesus-pray-my-children-that-the-fifth-marian-dogma-be-proclaimed/
 
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Offline Xavier

  • Eternal Father, through Mary's Immaculate Heart, We Offer You the Body and Blood, Soul and Divinity of Your Dearly Beloved Son, Our Lord Jesus Christ in Atonement for our sins and those of the Whole World.
  • St. Joseph's Workbench
  • Hauptmann
  • ****
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  • Slave of the Risen Jesus in the Holy Sacrifice.
    • Marian Apostolate Life Offering.
  • Religion: St. Thomas' Indian Traditional Roman Catholic.
A brief summary of the lives, works and martyrdoms of each of the 12 Apostles, including St. Paul the Apostle: New Advent Entries on each of the Apostles are also good and can be consulted. Fr. Butler's entries for their feast days are excellent with detailed references.

1: St. Peter the Apostle, and St. Paul: Sts. Peter and St. Paul were martyred in Rome under the emperor Nero on the same day around A.D. 67. St. Peter had been Bishop of Rome - and had governed Antioch for about 7 before that - for around 25 years and had written the two Petrine epistles. St. Paul had written the 14 glorious epistles that we have in our Bible, and was a great witness to the Truth of the Risen Christ. A former Rabbi - who studied under Rabbi Gamaliel I, grandson of Hillel, a contemporary of Christ, who himself later converted, as St. Luke implies and St. Clement explicitly relates - who was at once a fierce persecutor of Christ, the 180 degree turn he experienced and his heroic labors, sufferings, stripes, persecution and final witness for the Gospel in his blood can only be explained by his encounter with the Risen Christ, on the Road to Damascus, as he gave us sworn eyewitness testimony. St. Peter, Prince and Head of the Apostles, who already commends St. Paul's epistles and labors so highly in his last epistle, stamps his work and life with full Pontifical approval, and gave his own life in heroic martyrdom together with St. Paul in Rome. Their feast day is on 29th June (St. Paul 30th in Fr.B)

St. Peter: https://www.bartleby.com/210/6/291.html
St. Paul: https://www.bartleby.com/210/6/301.html

The ridiculous assertions of some later modernists that "Paul invented Christianity, other Apostles rejected him" is totally refuted by this.

2: St. James the Great, Apostle of Spain: St. James the Great, Apostle of Spain, who heralded the impending triumph of the Catholic Faith in all Europe, as Sts. Peter and St. Paul had done in Rome, Mother Church and Teacher of the Whole World, was the first of all the holy Apostles to be boldly and courageously martyred out of unstoppable and indefatigable zeal for the glory of the Risen Christ. The very fact that St. James labored so much to go to Spain and then suffered death for Christ is a standing rebuke to the silly secularism and indifferentism of our time, and an invitation to come to Christ and experience His Love and Power as True God. St. James would not do this for a man who he had ascertained dead. St. James' labors in Spain, as Fr. Butler summarizes, "That he preached there, is constantly affirmed by the Tradition of that Church, mentioned by St. Isidore, the Breviary of Toledo, the Arabic books of Anastasius patriarch of Antioch, concerning the Passions of the martyrs and others. Cuper the Bollandist, 4 traces this tradition very high, and confirms it from St. Jerom, 5 St. Isidore, the ancient Spanish office, &c., and from many corroborating circumstances. St. Epiphanius says, that St. James always lived a bachelor, in much temperance and mortification, never eating flesh nor fish; that he wore only one coat, and a linen cloak, and that he was holy and exemplary in all manner of conversation. He was the first among the apostles who had the honour to follow his divine master by martyrdom, which he suffered at Jerusalem, whither he was returned, in the eleventh year after our Lord’s ascension."

St. Luke itself records his martyrdom in Acts, under Herod Agrippa, about A.D. 43. His martyred blood was the seed of the Church.

His feast day is on July 25th. Fr. Butler's entry on St. James is here: https://www.bartleby.com/210/7/251.html

3: St. James the Just, Bishop of Jerusalem: A cousin brother of Our Lord and son of Alpheus, this Apostle is mentioned by Josephus, and was universally styled as "the Just" in Jerusalem, for his perfect imitation of Christ, and manifestly holy life, even by non-believing Jews. St. James is an incredible eyewitness testimony to the fact of the Risen Christ right in the very hometown of his death, whom no one was able to answer. After a heroic life of about 30 years and daily martyrdom for love of Christ, St. James was put to such a cruel death, that non-believers themselves, said that almost certainly Jerusalem would now fall, for killing such a just man. That came about in 70 A.D.

His feast in Fr. Butler's entry is on May 1st. The entry here: https://www.bartleby.com/210/5/012.html Account of his martyrdom below.

"Wherefore, during this interval, Ananus, the high-priest, son of the famous Annas mentioned in the gospels, having assembled the Sanhedrim, or great council of the Jews, summoned St. James and others before it. Josephus, the Jewish historian, says, 23 that St. James was accused of violating the laws, and delivered to the people to be stoned to death. And Hegesippus adds, 24 that they carried him up to the battlements of the temple, and would have compelled him from thence to make a public renunciation of his faith in Christ, with this further view, thereby to undeceive, as they termed it, those among the people who had embraced Christianity. But St. James took that opportunity to declare his belief in Jesus Christ after the most solemn and public manner. For he cried out aloud from the battlements, in the hearing of a great multitude, which was then at Jerusalem on account of the passover, that Jesus, the Son of man, was seated at the right hand of the Sovereign Majesty, and would come in the clouds of heaven to judge the world. The Scribes and Pharisees, enraged at this testimony in behalf of Jesus, cried out: “The just man also hath erred.” And going up to the battlements, they threw him headlong down to the ground, saying: “He must be stoned.” St. James, though very much bruised by his fall, had strength enough to get upon his knees, and in this posture, lifting up his eyes to heaven, he begged of God to pardon his murderers, seeing that they knew not what they did. The rabble below received him with showers of stones, and at last a fuller gave him a blow on the head with his club, such as is used in dressing of cloths, after which he presently expired. This happened on the festival of the Pasch, the 10th of April, in the year of Christ 62, the seventh of Nero. He was buried near the temple, in the place in which he was martyred, where a small column was erected. Such was the reputation of his sanctity, that the Jews attributed to his death the destruction of Jerusalem, as we read in St. Jerom, 25 Origen, 26 and Eusebius, 27 who assure us that Josephus himself declared it in the genuine editions of his history. Ananus put others to death for the same cause, but was threatened for this very fact by Albinus, and deposed from the high-priesthood by Agrippa."

The rest later. New Advent or the Bartleby site with Fr. Butler's entries can be consulted by any inquirer. We know of Plato and Aristotle in part because of their influence on their disciples. In the same way, we know Christ is Risen, because He made His Apostles who up till then had been wavering, weak and scared great and holy men who were heroes, Saints, Martyrs, and World-Conquerors.
« Last Edit: February 27, 2019, 06:56:34 AM by Xavier »
To understand God's Plan for Humanity, and how He has provided the means by which we can minimize the Coming Great Tribulation, read: https://maryrefugeofholylove.com/

Offer your Life to Jesus and Mary: TEXT OF THE LIFE OFFERING, adapted: Dear Lord Jesus, before the Holy Trinity, Our Heavenly Mother, and the whole Heavenly Court, united with Your most Precious Blood and Your Sacrifice on Calvary, We hereby Offer our whole Lives to the Intention of Your Sacred Heart and to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Together with our life, we place at Your disposal all Holy Masses, all our Holy Communions, all Rosaries, all acts of consecration, all our good deeds, all our sacrifices, and the suffering of our entire life for the Adoration and Supplication of the Holy Trinity, for Unity in our Holy Mother Church, for the Holy Father, Pope Francis the First; and for His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI. For His Eminence Patriarch Kirill of Moscow, His Excellency Metropolitan Hilarion, as well as His Eminence Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople, that they may re-unite their flocks with the Roman Catholic Church, and there may soon be but One Fold and One Shepherd. For all the 220+ Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, for all 6000+ Bishops of the Universal Church that they may be true Apostles and Shepherds; and for the 400,000+ Priests, the 700,000+ Nuns, 50,000+ Monks, 100,000+ seminarians, that they may all become the Saints the Divine Will wishes them to be; for all the 1.35 Billion Members of the Church, the Millions of Catholic Catechumens and Children to be born and baptized in this Decade; we pray for good Priestly and Religious Vocations, for All Lay Apostolates, and All Souls until the end of the world. O my Jesus, please accept our life Sacrifice and our offerings and give us Your grace that we may all persevere obediently until death. Amen." https://marianapostolate.com/life-offering/

"Mother of God, Co-Redemptrix of the world, pray for us" [Promise: 1000 Souls from Purgatory]"This short prayer, this insistent prayer, every time it is said, sets free from Purgatory 1000 Souls, who reach the Eternal Joy, the Eternal Light"(!). http://www.jesusmariasite.org/jesus-pray-my-children-that-the-fifth-marian-dogma-be-proclaimed/