Author Topic: The Five Ways or Quinque Viae of the Angelic Doctor.  (Read 281 times)

Offline Xavier

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The Five Ways or Quinque Viae of the Angelic Doctor.
« on: January 11, 2019, 01:19:31 AM »
We have discussed this in sacred sciences, but let's consider it here for the benefit of non-Catholics. It would be very good for Catholics also to be immersed in and internalize these Five Solid Proofs, so as to be able to help non-theists come to God. http://www.newadvent.org/summa/1002.htm

"I answer that, The existence of God can be proved in five ways.

The first and more manifest way is the argument from motion. It is certain, and evident to our senses, that in the world some things are in motion. Now whatever is in motion is put in motion by another, for nothing can be in motion except it is in potentiality to that towards which it is in motion; whereas a thing moves inasmuch as it is in act. For motion is nothing else than the reduction of something from potentiality to actuality. But nothing can be reduced from potentiality to actuality, except by something in a state of actuality. Thus that which is actually hot, as fire, makes wood, which is potentially hot, to be actually hot, and thereby moves and changes it. Now it is not possible that the same thing should be at once in actuality and potentiality in the same respect, but only in different respects. For what is actually hot cannot simultaneously be potentially hot; but it is simultaneously potentially cold. It is therefore impossible that in the same respect and in the same way a thing should be both mover and moved, i.e. that it should move itself. Therefore, whatever is in motion must be put in motion by another. If that by which it is put in motion be itself put in motion, then this also must needs be put in motion by another, and that by another again. But this cannot go on to infinity, because then there would be no first mover, and, consequently, no other mover; seeing that subsequent movers move only inasmuch as they are put in motion by the first mover; as the staff moves only because it is put in motion by the hand. Therefore it is necessary to arrive at a first mover, put in motion by no other; and this everyone understands to be God.

The second way is from the nature of the efficient cause. In the world of sense we find there is an order of efficient causes. There is no case known (neither is it, indeed, possible) in which a thing is found to be the efficient cause of itself; for so it would be prior to itself, which is impossible. Now in efficient causes it is not possible to go on to infinity, because in all efficient causes following in order, the first is the cause of the intermediate cause, and the intermediate is the cause of the ultimate cause, whether the intermediate cause be several, or only one. Now to take away the cause is to take away the effect. Therefore, if there be no first cause among efficient causes, there will be no ultimate, nor any intermediate cause. But if in efficient causes it is possible to go on to infinity, there will be no first efficient cause, neither will there be an ultimate effect, nor any intermediate efficient causes; all of which is plainly false. Therefore it is necessary to admit a first efficient cause, to which everyone gives the name of God.

The third way is taken from possibility and necessity, and runs thus. We find in nature things that are possible to be and not to be, since they are found to be generated, and to corrupt, and consequently, they are possible to be and not to be. But it is impossible for these always to exist, for that which is possible not to be at some time is not. Therefore, if everything is possible not to be, then at one time there could have been nothing in existence. Now if this were true, even now there would be nothing in existence, because that which does not exist only begins to exist by something already existing. Therefore, if at one time nothing was in existence, it would have been impossible for anything to have begun to exist; and thus even now nothing would be in existence — which is absurd. Therefore, not all beings are merely possible, but there must exist something the existence of which is necessary. But every necessary thing either has its necessity caused by another, or not. Now it is impossible to go on to infinity in necessary things which have their necessity caused by another, as has been already proved in regard to efficient causes. Therefore we cannot but postulate the existence of some being having of itself its own necessity, and not receiving it from another, but rather causing in others their necessity. This all men speak of as God.

The fourth way is taken from the gradation to be found in things. Among beings there are some more and some less good, true, noble and the like. But "more" and "less" are predicated of different things, according as they resemble in their different ways something which is the maximum, as a thing is said to be hotter according as it more nearly resembles that which is hottest; so that there is something which is truest, something best, something noblest and, consequently, something which is uttermost being; for those things that are greatest in truth are greatest in being, as it is written in Metaph. ii. Now the maximum in any genus is the cause of all in that genus; as fire, which is the maximum heat, is the cause of all hot things. Therefore there must also be something which is to all beings the cause of their being, goodness, and every other perfection; and this we call God.

The fifth way is taken from the governance of the world. We see that things which lack intelligence, such as natural bodies, act for an end, and this is evident from their acting always, or nearly always, in the same way, so as to obtain the best result. Hence it is plain that not fortuitously, but designedly, do they achieve their end. Now whatever lacks intelligence cannot move towards an end, unless it be directed by some being endowed with knowledge and intelligence; as the arrow is shot to its mark by the archer. Therefore some intelligent being exists by whom all natural things are directed to their end; and this being we call God."
Please listen to the frequent messages and take heed of the directions given from Our Living Lord and Our Loving Lady from around the world here: https://maryrefugeofholylove.com/ Great things are at stake. Please consecrate your life to the Blessed Mother so that the Kingdom of God may come, "Ad Sanctam Trinitatem per Mariam, Ut adveniat Regnum Deum, adveniat Regnum Mariae, ergo TOTUS TUUS ego sum, MARIA" See http://www.maria-domina-animarum.net/en/flowers/1-250

Mary, our Heavenly Mother, implores those who receive Holy Communion Daily, or at least Weekly, to Offer their Lives. TEXT OF THE LIFE OFFERING, adapted and pluralized: Dear Lord Jesus, before the Holy Trinity, Our Heavenly Mother, and the whole Heavenly Court, united with Your most Precious Blood and Your Sacrifice on Calvary, We hereby Offer our whole Lives to the Intention of Your Sacred Heart and to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Together with our life, we place at Your disposal all Holy Masses, all our Holy Communions, all Rosaries, all acts of consecration, all our good deeds, all our sacrifices, and the suffering of our entire life for the Adoration and Supplication of the Holy Trinity, for Unity in our Holy Mother Church, for the Holy Father, Pope Francis the First; and for His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI. For all the Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, for all Bishops of the Universal Church that they may be true Apostles and Shepherds; and for Priests, Nuns and Monks, for good Priestly and Religious Vocations, and for All Souls until the end of the world. O my Jesus, please accept our life Sacrifice and our offerings and give us Your grace that we may all persevere obediently until death. Amen." https://marianapostolate.com/life-offering/ It is recommended that you make this Life Offering as soon as you feel ready, and to renew it from time to time.

Please read the Blessed Mother's amazing promises in the link: A simple effective way for thousands of us to save millions of souls. The Doctors and Apostles say if we save even just one other soul through prayer and sacrifice, we also ensure the salvation of our own! Let us Offer our Lives in Sacrifice to Jesus and Mary to Save All Souls everywhere.
 
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Offline Xavier

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Re: The Five Ways or Quinque Viae of the Angelic Doctor.
« Reply #1 on: January 22, 2019, 12:40:24 AM »
Syllogistic Summaries of the Five Ways:

I: The First Way (also known as the Demonstration from motion, or alternately the Demonstration from Potentiality)

1. All that is moved (or that has had some potency actualized) has been put in motion (or has been actualized) by another.
2. If every thing set in motion (or actualized) were moved (i.e. in a state of potency needing to be actualized), there would be an infinite regress.
3. Therefore, there is a Mover that is Unmoved. (or, a Being that is Pure Actuality, in Whom there is no potentiality)

This Being terminates the chain of motion and is Who we call God. It is He Who, lacking potentiality (there is nothing that He can become that He is already not), set all other things in motion - He actualizes the potential other beings have by moving them from one state to another.

For an analogy, if you could observe balls being set in motion, by one ball striking the next and moving it, you could deduce that the line of balls (even if you could not see the first mover) does not go on indefinitely, but will have to terminate in some mover - of a nature other than a moved ball (e.g. a human hand).

The difference between the First Way and the Second Way is the first deals with motion/potentiality while the second deals with cause/being itself. Some non-theists may admit only one or the other, hence the Angelic Doctor takes the trouble to prove the same Truth in different ways, so many people can be led to acknowledge it.

While there is some overlap between the different ways, they only approach the question from different angles, to deduce properties of the Unmoved Mover/First Cause.

II: The Second Way (also known as the Demonstration from efficient causes leading up to a first Cause)

1. In the world we see that nothing can be the cause of itself, otherwise it would exist prior to itself
2. Therefore, every thing that begins to exist has a cause of its existence.
3. It cannot be that every being is caused by another being, otherwise there will be no end.
4. Therefore, a first being exists, without beginning, and as first cause of all beings.

III: The Third Way - Demonstration from Contingency/Necessity (also known as the Demonstration from the possible and the necessary)

1. Beings are said to exist contingently when their non-existence is possible (i.e. for instance, they can cease to exist, they at one time did not exist etc)
2. Every contingent being depends on another being for its existence.
3. Therefore, if every being in existence existed contingently, the series would never end, and no existence would be possible.
4. Therefore, it is necessary that some Being exists not contingently, but necessarily, i.e. without beginning and end.

IV: The Fourth Way: Demonstrations of God's Attributes - the Supreme Being possesses every perfection in its highest possible plenitude

In the Fourth Way, St. Thomas proves God is infinite Goodness and infinite Perfection. This follows from the gradation we observe in created things. We see that some are more or less good, more or less beautiful and so on. But what is Goodness that is differently participated in by different beings? What is the origin of the moral law we discern on our conscience, that reason and the natural law inform us is eternal and immutable? Each of these predications suggest an infinite source of all these attributes which they display in a limited way. Just as we saw that being and motion must be caused, so now we see that goodness and beauty and each particular attribute has its source in God.

1. We not only observe different modes of being that require causes, but we also observe grades of being e.g. beings more or less good, and other such participations in which creatures share in different degrees.

2. As we saw beings require a cause, the gradations of being also require a specific cause, e.g. gradations of temperature caused by heat.

3. Therefore, there exists some Being that is uttermost Goodness, uttermost Beauty, uttermost Wisdom and uttermost Love.

4. As for the areas where these are absent, which non-Christians sometimes wonder about, it is because we creatures have not yet fulfilled our end, which is union with this Goodness, which we therefore have to work toward. Evil arises from the absence of Good.

V: The Fifth Way: Demonstrations drawn from Intelligent Design and the Physical Laws of the Universe, creatures acting for an end:

In the Fifth, God's Intelligence and Wisdom is deduced from the laws of the created universe and the design inherent in nature. The universe like a programmed algorithm behaves in ordered ways, manifesting an Intelligence working behind the scenes that governs all things.

 ID is based on the same principle. When British cryptographers saw signs of design in apparently random signals, they deduced the enemy was trying to send a code. Design detection is clearly possible and is a scientific endeavor. DNA exhibits clear signs of Design, as Dr. Meyer has shown. St. Thomas argues from physical laws.

1. We see unintelligent things move toward an end, e.g. orbiting planets.
2. Things which lack intelligence are not capable of doing so, unless guided to do so by a Being that has Intelligence.
3. Therefore, the laws of Nature, like arrows directed by an archer, work toward a fixed end because of the Intelligence that guides them.
4. In other words, God constantly guides created things by His laws.

Hope this is helpful for inquirers into Christianity. God bless.
« Last Edit: January 22, 2019, 08:08:38 AM by Xavier »
Please listen to the frequent messages and take heed of the directions given from Our Living Lord and Our Loving Lady from around the world here: https://maryrefugeofholylove.com/ Great things are at stake. Please consecrate your life to the Blessed Mother so that the Kingdom of God may come, "Ad Sanctam Trinitatem per Mariam, Ut adveniat Regnum Deum, adveniat Regnum Mariae, ergo TOTUS TUUS ego sum, MARIA" See http://www.maria-domina-animarum.net/en/flowers/1-250

Mary, our Heavenly Mother, implores those who receive Holy Communion Daily, or at least Weekly, to Offer their Lives. TEXT OF THE LIFE OFFERING, adapted and pluralized: Dear Lord Jesus, before the Holy Trinity, Our Heavenly Mother, and the whole Heavenly Court, united with Your most Precious Blood and Your Sacrifice on Calvary, We hereby Offer our whole Lives to the Intention of Your Sacred Heart and to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Together with our life, we place at Your disposal all Holy Masses, all our Holy Communions, all Rosaries, all acts of consecration, all our good deeds, all our sacrifices, and the suffering of our entire life for the Adoration and Supplication of the Holy Trinity, for Unity in our Holy Mother Church, for the Holy Father, Pope Francis the First; and for His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI. For all the Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, for all Bishops of the Universal Church that they may be true Apostles and Shepherds; and for Priests, Nuns and Monks, for good Priestly and Religious Vocations, and for All Souls until the end of the world. O my Jesus, please accept our life Sacrifice and our offerings and give us Your grace that we may all persevere obediently until death. Amen." https://marianapostolate.com/life-offering/ It is recommended that you make this Life Offering as soon as you feel ready, and to renew it from time to time.

Please read the Blessed Mother's amazing promises in the link: A simple effective way for thousands of us to save millions of souls. The Doctors and Apostles say if we save even just one other soul through prayer and sacrifice, we also ensure the salvation of our own! Let us Offer our Lives in Sacrifice to Jesus and Mary to Save All Souls everywhere.
 
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Offline Xavier

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Re: The Five Ways or Quinque Viae of the Angelic Doctor.
« Reply #2 on: February 27, 2019, 06:25:50 AM »
Summary of Five Ways to come from a generic theism to Catholic Christianity:

I: From the wondrous Eucharistic Miracles Christ has worked:


1. Only God can change One Substance into another, in such a way that the first ceases to exist and the second inheres in the accidents of the first.
2. But in Eucharistic Miracles, we see a visible demonstration of an act that requires the Power of God, since the Host is visibly transformed.
3. Therefore, it is a perfectly legitimate and justified inference that God, in Power and Love, is at work here in the Holy Eucharist.

One E.G. Lanciano: The analyses were conducted with absolute and unquestionable scientific precision and they were documented with a series of microscopic photographs. These analyses sustained the following conclusions:

The Flesh is real Flesh. The Blood is real Blood. The Flesh and the Blood belong to the human species. The Flesh consists of the muscular tissue of the heart ... http://www.therealpresence.org/eucharst/mir/lanciano.html

II: From the Incorrupt Bodies of the Saints:

1. That bodies left to their own power would naturally decay is quite certain. Hardly any skeptic, one hopes, would deny that.
2. By sustaining the bodies of His Saints incorruptibility, we see another effect that could only come from the Power of God.
3. Thus, God the Creator and Author of Nature and the Universe, has Supreme Power and regularly intervenes in history.

E.g. https://maryrefugeofholylove.com/lives-of-the-saints/top-ten-list-of-incorruptible-saints-with-photos/

III: From the Messianic Prophesies that Jesus Christ fulfilled, showing that He is Divine:

1. For Centuries, God had promised a Messiah Who would have to do so many and such great things that Only One Person has fulfilled them.
2. That One Person is Jesus Christ, Who gave His Life in Redeeming Sacrifice, and instituted the visible Melchizedek Priesthood, and so much more.
3. Therefore, Jesus Christ is the Messiah, God keeps His Promises, and far from being some agnostic deistic god, is the Lord of All History.

we have seen some here itself, but an external link to just 40 Messianic prophesies https://jewsforjesus.org/answers/top-40-most-helpful-messianic-prophecies/

IV: From the manifest evidence for the Resurrection of Christ in the lives of the transformed Apostles:

1. The holy Apostles and hundreds of other Christians swore in eyewitness testimony they saw Jesus Christ Risen after His death.
2. The alternative explanations for the Empty Tomb, Heroic Lives and Martyrdoms like "Apostles stole the body" are ridiculous.
3. Therefore, it is quite reasonable and just to believe the Apostolic Testimony, as a visible effect that arose only because of the Risen Christ.

New Advent admirably says, "Briefly, therefore, the fact of Christ's Resurrection is attested by more than 500 eyewitnesses, whose experience, simplicity, and uprightness of life rendered them incapable of inventing such a fable, who lived at a time when any attempt to deceive could have been easily discovered, who had nothing in this life to gain, but everything to lose by their testimony, whose moral courage exhibited in their apostolic life can be explained only by their intimate conviction of the objective truth of their message. Again the fact of Christ's Resurrection is attested by the eloquent silence of the Synagogue which had done everything to prevent deception, which could have easily discovered deception, if there had been any, which opposed only sleeping witnesses to the testimony of the Apostles, which did not punish the alleged carelessness of the official guard, and which could not answer the testimony of the Apostles except by threatening them "that they speak no more in this name to any man" (Acts 4:17). Finally the thousands and millions, both Jews and Gentiles, who believed the testimony of the Apostles in spite of all the disadvantages following from such a belief, in short the origin of the Church, requires for its explanation the reality of Christ's Resurrection, for the rise of the Church without the Resurrection would have been a greater miracle than the Resurrection itself." http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12789a.htm

V: From the prophesies of Christ and the Prophets visibly fulfilled in the Catholic Church.

1. Jesus Christ, before being put to His foretold Sacrificial Death, prophesied the universal Spread of Christianity, as indeed the Prophets had.
2. But Jesus Christ could in no way have either known or controlled that Christianity would spread universally unless He were the True God.
3. Christianity has indeed been spread universally, therefore Christ is God and has control of all things. The Prophet even speak more specifically of a universal Sacrifice offered, incredibly, from dawn to dusk in every land, visibly fulfilled, even more incredibly, in the Catholic Church.

"Thus are fulfilled the words of the prophet Malachias [1:11]: ‘From the rising of the sun even to the going down thereof, My name is great among the Gentiles; and in every place there is sacrifice, and there is offered to My name a clean oblation: for My name is great among the Gentiles, saith the Lord of hosts. Not an instant of time passes that Mass is not offered, and the Host not adored. Talk of an Empire on which the sun never sets, of the British reveille drum ever beating as our planet revolves on its axis and the day chases night around the globe; what is that to the unending oblation of the Catholic Church?" http://slatts.blogspot.com/2008/06/in-every-place-there-is-sacrifice.html

For our non-Catholic friends, take seriously, dear friends, the price of so great a salvation and eternal happiness, so freely offered you in Jesus Christ and His Church.

For Catholics, let us heed what the Doctors and Saints say about the importance of the salvation of souls and our own, and strive to increase our zeal to win all to Christ for the Faith, "St. John Chrysostom, (347-407), the illustrious Bishop of Constantinople, and Doctor of the Church,  tells us: "Zeal for the salvation of souls is of so great a merit before God, that to give up all our goods to the poor, or to spend our whole life in the exercises of all sorts of austerities cannot equal the merit of it. There is no service more agreeable to God than this one. To employ one's life in this blessed labor is more pleasing to the Divine Majesty than to suffer martyrdom. Would you not feel happy if you could spend large sums of money in corporal works of mercy? But know that he who labors for the salvation of souls does far more; nay, the zeal of souls is of far greater merit before God ... than the working of miracles." and from St. Vincent De Paul " ... The salvation of men and our own are so great that they merit to be obtained at any price." From: https://olrl.org/misc/winsouls.shtml
Please listen to the frequent messages and take heed of the directions given from Our Living Lord and Our Loving Lady from around the world here: https://maryrefugeofholylove.com/ Great things are at stake. Please consecrate your life to the Blessed Mother so that the Kingdom of God may come, "Ad Sanctam Trinitatem per Mariam, Ut adveniat Regnum Deum, adveniat Regnum Mariae, ergo TOTUS TUUS ego sum, MARIA" See http://www.maria-domina-animarum.net/en/flowers/1-250

Mary, our Heavenly Mother, implores those who receive Holy Communion Daily, or at least Weekly, to Offer their Lives. TEXT OF THE LIFE OFFERING, adapted and pluralized: Dear Lord Jesus, before the Holy Trinity, Our Heavenly Mother, and the whole Heavenly Court, united with Your most Precious Blood and Your Sacrifice on Calvary, We hereby Offer our whole Lives to the Intention of Your Sacred Heart and to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Together with our life, we place at Your disposal all Holy Masses, all our Holy Communions, all Rosaries, all acts of consecration, all our good deeds, all our sacrifices, and the suffering of our entire life for the Adoration and Supplication of the Holy Trinity, for Unity in our Holy Mother Church, for the Holy Father, Pope Francis the First; and for His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI. For all the Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, for all Bishops of the Universal Church that they may be true Apostles and Shepherds; and for Priests, Nuns and Monks, for good Priestly and Religious Vocations, and for All Souls until the end of the world. O my Jesus, please accept our life Sacrifice and our offerings and give us Your grace that we may all persevere obediently until death. Amen." https://marianapostolate.com/life-offering/ It is recommended that you make this Life Offering as soon as you feel ready, and to renew it from time to time.

Please read the Blessed Mother's amazing promises in the link: A simple effective way for thousands of us to save millions of souls. The Doctors and Apostles say if we save even just one other soul through prayer and sacrifice, we also ensure the salvation of our own! Let us Offer our Lives in Sacrifice to Jesus and Mary to Save All Souls everywhere.
 
The following users thanked this post: Daniel

Offline Xavier

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Re: The Five Ways or Quinque Viae of the Angelic Doctor.
« Reply #3 on: April 05, 2019, 09:56:58 AM »
Summary of Two More Ways for sincere inquirers to come to the Faith in Jesus Christ as the One True God:

I: From the lives of the Saints in general:

1. An investigation of the lives of the Saints that Christianity has produced, and the miracles Christ has worked through them (St. Patrick, St. Francis Xavier, St. Francis of Assisi, St. Padre Pio etc etc etc), as their contemporaries, even opponents have borne witness, should further show non-Catholics that Jesus Christ is the Living God Who still works miracles.
2. If Jesus Christ still works miracles through the Saints of His Church, it is yet another sign from Him that He really rose from the dead.
3. Therefore, Jesus Christ is the One True God, Who became Man for our sake, then truly and really died, then rose again on the 3rd day.

Lives of the Saints online here: http://www.sacred-texts.com/chr/lots/

II: From the lives of the Apostles in particular:

1. At the beginning of their lives after meeting the Lord Jesus, the Apostles were still often weak, confused, divided and cowardly.
2. Yet after they became sworn eyewitnesses of the Lord's Resurrection, all history bears witness they were heroic even unto death.
3. The Apostles didn't invent the Resurrection, as no one would invent the claim that a dead Messiah had risen, then give their lives for that lie they knowingly invented. The Apostles also weren't sincere but mistaken, because they testify more than 500 people saw Christ.
4. Therefore, the only remaining alternative is that the Apostles were both sincere and also right, and the Lord Jesus really rose.

Can be found also in Fr. Butler, on each of their feast days, but a more ancient, though brief, source from St. Hippolytus here: http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0524.htm ...

[to be continued]
Please listen to the frequent messages and take heed of the directions given from Our Living Lord and Our Loving Lady from around the world here: https://maryrefugeofholylove.com/ Great things are at stake. Please consecrate your life to the Blessed Mother so that the Kingdom of God may come, "Ad Sanctam Trinitatem per Mariam, Ut adveniat Regnum Deum, adveniat Regnum Mariae, ergo TOTUS TUUS ego sum, MARIA" See http://www.maria-domina-animarum.net/en/flowers/1-250

Mary, our Heavenly Mother, implores those who receive Holy Communion Daily, or at least Weekly, to Offer their Lives. TEXT OF THE LIFE OFFERING, adapted and pluralized: Dear Lord Jesus, before the Holy Trinity, Our Heavenly Mother, and the whole Heavenly Court, united with Your most Precious Blood and Your Sacrifice on Calvary, We hereby Offer our whole Lives to the Intention of Your Sacred Heart and to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Together with our life, we place at Your disposal all Holy Masses, all our Holy Communions, all Rosaries, all acts of consecration, all our good deeds, all our sacrifices, and the suffering of our entire life for the Adoration and Supplication of the Holy Trinity, for Unity in our Holy Mother Church, for the Holy Father, Pope Francis the First; and for His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI. For all the Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, for all Bishops of the Universal Church that they may be true Apostles and Shepherds; and for Priests, Nuns and Monks, for good Priestly and Religious Vocations, and for All Souls until the end of the world. O my Jesus, please accept our life Sacrifice and our offerings and give us Your grace that we may all persevere obediently until death. Amen." https://marianapostolate.com/life-offering/ It is recommended that you make this Life Offering as soon as you feel ready, and to renew it from time to time.

Please read the Blessed Mother's amazing promises in the link: A simple effective way for thousands of us to save millions of souls. The Doctors and Apostles say if we save even just one other soul through prayer and sacrifice, we also ensure the salvation of our own! Let us Offer our Lives in Sacrifice to Jesus and Mary to Save All Souls everywhere.